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Gc IVl. 1_, 

975.8 

G297p 

1917-19 

lst-3rd 

1727373 



REYMOLn!R HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



Digitized by tlie Internet Arciiive 
in 2013 



littp://archive.org/details/proceedingsofannOOgeor_0 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

FIRST ANNUAL SESSION 

OF THE 

GEORGIA m§T 
ASSOCIATION 



ATLANTA 

APRIL 10, 1917 



1727373 



CONTENTS 



Page 

AOnutes of the First Annual Meeting 5 

The Need for a New Historical Organization in Georgia — 

By R. P. Brooks 12 

Historiography in Georgia — By T. H. Jack 21 

The Condition of Georgia's Archives — By Mrs. Maud Barker 

Cobb , 32 

Georgians Most Vital Need: A Department of Archives — 

By Lucian L. Knight . 36 

The Constitution of the Georgia Historical Association 45 

Notes of the First Meeting 46 

Check List of Georgia Archival Material in Certain Offices 

of the StMe Capitol 49 

Members of the Association, Alphabetically Arranged 64 

Members of the Association, by Counties 74 

Map Showing the Distribution of Members 86 



f: 



I 

Officers of the Georgia Historical Association 

President Lucian Lamar Knight, M.A., LL.D., State Com- 

7 7 7 .^ 

piler of Records, Atlanta. a 

Vice-President Theodore H. Jack, Ph.D., Emory Uni- 
versity, Oxford. 

Secretary-Treasurer Robert P. Brooks, Ph.D., University 

of Georgia, Athens. 

The Council 

Lucian Lamar Knight. 

Theodore H. Jack. 

Robert P. Brooks. 

Mrs. Maud Barker Cobb, State Librarian, Atlanta. 

John R. McCain, Ph.D., Agnes Scott College. 



Eligibility to Membership 

All persons interested in promoting the cause of Georgia His- 
tory are invited to become members of the Association. The 
dues are $2.00 per annum. 



PROCEEDINGS AND ADDRESSES 

OF THE 

FIRST ANNUAL MEETING 

OF THE 

Georgia Historical Association 

Atlanta, April 10, 1917 



MINUTES OF THE FIRST ANNUAL MEETING. 

The organization meeting of the Georgia Historical Associa- 
tion was held on the niurning of April 10th, 1917, in the Senate 
Chamjber of the Capitol in Atlanta. Governor N. E. Harris 
kindly consented to act as chairman, and called the meeting to 
order at 10 :00, taking occasion to express his pleasure at tilie 
inauguration of the association. As the meeting had been thrown 
open to the public, the program was so arranged as to defer the 
business of organization until after the presentation of the 
papers. After the reading of the papers and a lively discussion, 
of which mention is made in the Notes (p. 46), the Chairman call- 
ed on Professor Brooks for a report of the activities of the self- 
appointed Committee that had undertaken the movement to 
organize a new historical society. Professor Brooks then read 
the following paper: 

ATHENS, GA., April 10, 1917. 

I beg leave to make the following report as acting secretary 
of the committee under whose initiative the movement for the 
new historical organization has been conducted. 

During the summer and fall of last year informal conferences 
were held between ^Ir. Knight, Chancellor Barrow, Dr. ^McPher- 
son, of the University, and myself, at which it was decided to 
undertake the organization of the association of which this is 
the first meeting. Correspondence was had with prominent men 
and women interested in Georgia history- and an effort made to 
enlist the support of various patriotic societies. The active sup- 
port of the University was assured and the ofticials of the United 
Daughtei-s of the Confederacy and of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution agreed to join in the movement, lenaing 



6 ' First Annual Session 

the aid of their names in the letter of invitation that was sent 
broadcast over the state in the fall. A copy of this letter follows: 

AUGUST 30, 1917. 

The purpose of this letter is to enlist your interest in the proposed 
organization of a new historical society in Georgia. Under the 
auspices of the Georgia Historical Society, which has been in ex- 
istence for many years, a great deal of valuable historical work has 
been accomplished. That society has confined its activities largely 
to Colonial and Revolutionary history, and the documents published 
in its Collections have been of prime importance. We feel that 
there is novr a need for another society, whose aim shall be to as- 
sist in popularizing the study of State history, and especially to 
work for the collection and preservation of materials bearing on the 
history of Georgia in the nineteenth century. 

This later phase of our history has been greatly neglected. There 
is no comprehensive treatment of the ante-bellum and War periods, 
a condition due in part to the fact that the documentary materials 
for such a study have not been collected and put at the disposal 
of the historian. The archives of the state are not in a satisfac- 
tory condition for use, and many individuals have priceless histori- 
cal documents stuffed away in garrets and boxes, where they are 
useless for practical purposes and are in danger of destruction from 
fire or neglect. 

We desire to see ultimately established in Georgia a department 
of archives and history, with adequate powers under the law for 
the systematizing of State archives and the collection and pre- 
servation of historical materials. Georgia has lagged far behind 
'Other Southern States in this regard, notably, Mississippi, Alabama, 
North Carolina, and Virginia. You will be interested to know what 
has been done in one of these States. The Historical Commission 
of North Carolina was organized in 1903. It now occupies the 
whole of the second floor of a beautiful marble structure. It has 
taken in hand and systematized the public archives of the State, 
which were formerly packed away indiscriminately in out of the 
way places. These documents are now properly bound and arranged 
on roller shelves. The report of the Commission for 1908 stated 
that 669 shelves had already been filled with these archives. The 
Commission was empowered to ask private citizens for the gift or 
loan of historical materials, such as correspondence. The Report 
of 1910 stated that at that time 8,788 manuscripts had been deposited 
with the Commission. A historical museum has been established, 
containing in 1907, 6,200 objects. The Commission has issued 
numerous publications, including a voluminous documentary His- 
tory of Education in North Carolina, the Correspondence of several 
governors. Manuals of North Carolina, etc. 

Our belief is that at the present time there is not a sufficiently 



Georgia Historical Association 7 

strong public sentiment to justify a movement looking to the dupli- 
cation in Georgia of such work as is being done in our sister States. 
The importance of this matter must be brought home to our people 
through organized effort; and, as an initial step, we propose a new 
society to be known as the Georgia Historical Association. The plan 
so far as outlined contemplates a meeting during the winter in At- 
lanta, at which an organization shall be effected and a thorough 
consideration given to many questions that will arise. It is the in- 
tention of the committee to advocate the publication by the Associa- 
tion of a small quarterly devoted to Georgia History. This quarterly 
will serv^e the double purpose of affording a medium for the dis- 
semination of knowledge of Georgia history and of keeping the pur- 
poses of the organization before the public. 

We cordially invite you to join with us in the organization of the 
Association. It will be necessary to provide a fund for maintaining 
tnt) activities of the organization, but, of course, it will be left to 
the Association itself to determine the amount of the annual mem- 
bership fee. The principal item of expense, however, will be the 
Quarterly. The usual subscription for publications of this character 
is $2.00 and we believe that amount will cover all the necessary ex- 
penditures of the Association, provided a sufficient number of mem- 
bers can be obtained. If you desire to be identified with this move- 
ment, we would be glad to have you send your check for $2.00 to 
the Secretary "v\ath your note of acceptance. Should the response 
to this letter not justify our going ahead with the venture, your 
subscription will be returned. 

It is our intention to give every Georgian interested in furthering 
the cause of our State history an opportunity to join this Associa- 
tion. "We will be glad to send a copy of this letter to any addresses 
you may suggest. 

Yours very truly, 

L. L. KNIGHT, State Compiler of Records. 

D. C. BARRO'W, Chancellor, University of Ga. 

MISS MILDRED RUTHERFORD, Historian General of the 
U. D. C. 

MRS. H. H. McCALL, State Regent of the D. A. R. 

MRS. H. M. FRANKLIN, President of the Ga. U. D. C. 

SAMUEL B. ADAMS. 

J. H. T. McPHERSON, Professor of History, University of 
Georgia. 

R. P. BROOKS, Secretary, Athens, Ga. 

One thousand copies of this circular were addressed to a 
selected li.st prepared by ^Iv. Knigrht. Comparatively few, how- 
ever, responded, and after an inton'al the Committee determined 
to follow up the circulars by personal letters. Twelve or thirteen 



I 



8 First Annual Session 

hundred letters were written. Most of these letters were written 
by Mr. Knight and the cause of history in Georgia is deeply in- 
debted to him for his hard work in this connection. Indeed, it 
would have been necessary to abandon the enterprise but for Mr. v 

Knight's having thrown himself with great vigor into the effort 
to find support for the movement. These letters are still bearing 
fruit. Up to the present time 469 members have been secured. 
This is an encouraging beginning. The Committee had not ex- 
pected to be able to begin the organization with more than 200 
members. They feel, therefore, that the association begins its 
career with an unusually strong backing from the people of the 
state. The names of the members will be printed in the Pro- ^ 

ceedings of this meeting, which will be sent to each member as 
soon as the publication can be prepared. 

We are happy to be able to state that the membership is w^ell 
distributed over the State. Eighty-eight counties are represented 
and no part of Georgia fails to make a creditable showing. It is 
significant, however, that eighty per cent, of the total miember- ^ 

ship so far enrolled comes from the Piedmont section. It is by I 

no means our intention to regard this organization as a North | 

Georgia project, and our efforts to secure memberships have been f 

no less unremitting in South Georgia than in North Georgia. Bat f 

the greater success of the movement in North Georgia confirms f 

the belief of the initiators of this association that there is a ! 

strong deniRnd for a society having as its special field the more 
recent history of the state, which naturally concerns particularly 
the Piedmont region. 

Thirty per cent, of the total membership is contributed by At- 
lanta, the city having given us 142 members.. Athens comes 
second with 47 members. Other cities with the number of mem- 
bers are: Augusta, 14; Macon, 14; Rome, 11; Savannah, 9. We 
have also received 32 subscriptions from Georgians now residing 
outside of the State. 

It is impossible to forecast how many of the present members 
can be retained. We hope, however, that by continuing our ef- 
forts the membership may be kept in the neighborhood of 500. 

Of the 4G9 members, 106 have made their first payment. This 
fund of $212 has been used to reimburse the members of the 
Committee for advances made to pay for printing, postage and 



Georgia Historical Association 9 

clerical assistance. A balance of $84.50 reiniains in my hands. 
The Committee desires that you appoint an auditing committee 
to examine the accounts. 

Respectfully submitted, 

R. P. BROOKS. 

The next business before the meeting was the consideration and 
adoption of a constitution. A tentative draft of a constitution 
was presented by Professor Jack, of Emory University. After 
some discussion of details, the constitution was adopted in the 
form presented in this volume (See page 45). The matter of By- 
Laws was deferred until the next annual meeting. 

The Association then proceeded to elect the officers provided 
for in the coustitution. On motion, the Chairman appointed a 
nominating committee, consisting of Messrs. P. F. Brock. Claude 
Bond, and W. 0. Payne. The committee brought in the following 
nominations, which were accepted by the Association : Presi- 
dent, Lucian Lamar Knight ; Vice-President, Theodore H. Jack ; 
Secretary-Treasurer, R. P. Brooks; additional members of the 
Executive Council, Mrs. Maud Barker Cobb and J. R. McCain. 

On motion of Mr. Claude Bond, the Council was instructed 
to apply for a charter for the Association. 

The Council was instructed, on motion of Dr. E. D. Newton, 
to have printed 1,000 copies of the Proceedings of the meeting 
for distribution to members and others. • 

The luncheon hour having arrived, the meeting was declared 
adjourned and the members repaired to the Piedmont Hotel 
where a subscription luncheon was served. An account of this 
event is given in the Notes. 

Meeting of the Executive Council 

President Knight called the first meeting of the Executive 
Council of the Association in his office at the Capitol, at 5:00. 
All members were present. Matters of general policy were dis- 
cussed and the following actions taken. 

The Secretary-Treasurer was directed to prepare the Proceed- 
ings of the meeting for publication and to include therein a list 
of the members, lie was authorized to make a contract for print- 
ing the Proceedings in Athens. 

The accounts of the acting Secretary-Treasurer, Professor 



10 First Annual Session 

Brooks, were audited by a committee, consisting of Mrs. Cobb 
and Prof. Jack, and found correct. The following financial 
statement Avas rendered and ordered spread upon the minutes 
of the Executive Coimcil. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF THE COOIITTEE ON ORGANI- 
ZATION. 

Received in membership fees $212.00 

Disbursed as follows: 

September 1, 1916 — Check No. 1, Postage 12.34 

Cash Book .40 

Letter File .45 

Date Stamp and Pad .75 

September 25, 1916 — Check No. 2, Stenographer 5.00 

September 27, 1916 — Check No. 3, Postage ?.00 

October, 4, 1916 — Check No. 4, McGregor Co., Printing ^_ 9.00 

October 9, 1916 — Check No. 5, Postage 6.00 

October 16, 1916 — Check No. 6, Stenographer 10.00 

January 17, 1917 — Postage .40 

January 19, 1917 — Check No. 7, L. L. Knight, Stenographer 

and Postage 62.00 

March 23, 1917 — Check No. 8, L. L. Knight, Stenographer 

I and Postage 8.50 

March 26, 1917 — Check No. 9, Postage 10.66 

1 $127.50 

1 Balance j. 84.50 

.! 

I Total $212.00 

It was explained by Professor Brooks that the heavy charges 
for stenographer's services and postage was unavoidable in the 
work of soliciting memberships. About 2500 pieces of first-class 
mail matter were sent out, including some 1500 dictated letters. 
All of the money paid out was expended by Professor Brooks, 
except the two items of January 10th and ^larch 23rd. 

It was determined that for the present it would not be advisa- 
ble to undertake the publication of a historical quarterly, but in- 
stead to issue annual Proceedings of the meetings and such other 
publications as seem fitting from time to time. 

On motion, the rule was established that the Executive Council 

^ should meet twice each year, on the first Saturdays in October 

and April, respectively, the latter date being the time set by the 

Association for the annual meeting. The actual mileage of non- 



Georgia Historical Association 11 

resident members of the Executive Committee is to be paid, but 
all other expenses are to be borne by the individual members 
of the Council. 

The Executive Council directed that dues should become pay- 
able on April 10th, 1917, and on the same date of each succeed- 
ing year. Those members who sent in their dues with their ac- 
ceptance of the invitation to join will, therefore, not be called 
on again until April 10, 1918. The Secretary-Treasurer was 
directed to have a form printed and mailed to members who have 
not yet made their initial payment; and after the lapse of two 
months a second notice was ordered to be sent to those who may 
still have failed to respond. 

A committee ccncisting of the President and Professor Brooks 
was appointed to draw up a set of By-Laws for presentation to 
the next annual meeting. 



i 



12 First Annual Session 

The Need for a New Historical Organization in Georgia 
By Robert P. Brooks, Ph. D., 
DeRenne Professor of Georgia History in the University of Ga. \ 

State historical societies have a variety of functions. Among 
them may be mentioned the arousing of interest in historical 
study in general ; the collecting of books and manuscript material 
bearing on the history of the state ; the creation of museums of 
objects illustrative of the state's development; the marking of 
historical sites; the publication of papers and original docu- ; 

ments; the collecting uf files of state newspapers; and providing | 

a place of deposit for family papers. Such societies also consti- I 

tute an organized body of influential citizens to further govern- j 

mental activity in preserving and making available for scholars ! 

the most important of all sources of history, the archives of the 
state, that is to say, the records of the many offices located in the 
capitol as well as those in county seats of government. 

As you are aware, there has been in existence for many years 
the Georgia Historical Society, with headquarters in Savannah. 
This society during its honorable history of seventy-five years 
and more has made a valuable collection of Georgiana and has 
published a number of volumes of pamphlets, letters and other 
documents bearing on colonial and revolutionary history. The 
society has also this year begun the publication of a quarterly 
periodical. The organizers of the present movement feel, how- 
ever, that the Georgia Historical Society is too local in its 
character to subserve the ends we have in view. It has made 
little effort to reach out for a wider clientele, its interests are 
largely confined to origins, and it could not exercise that state- 
wide influence that must be brought to bear, if Georgia is to 
cease lagging behind her sister states in the care of her historical 
treasures. 

There is a distinct need for a historical organization, state- 
wide in character, with a nominal membership fee, so that large 
numbers may be enlisted in its efforts. There is a place for a 
society which shall have as its special interest the history of 
the Piedmont region in its economic, social and political aspects 
— which shall have as its field nineteenth century historj' rather 
than the study of origins and revolutionary history. For propa- 



Georgia Historical Association 13 

gandist purposes, for obvious reasons the society should center 
its activities at the seat of government. In organizing a second 
historical society we are engaged in no unusual undertaking. 
Many other southern states have two or more such associations 
and in the northern states it is common to find a score or more. 

The necessity for a movement of this kind in Georgia can be 
made plain in no better way than by putting before you the facts 
with regard to historical activities in other southern states. The 
following is a concise statement of the w^ork being done in those 
states for which it has been possible to obtain information. For 
each state mentioned an effort has been made to leara the num- 
ber and size of the historical organizations; their source of 
revenue, the activities of the societies in the way of collection 
and publication; and the status of state support for historical 
work. 

The Maryland Historical Society has 768 members and re- 
quires an annual membership fee of $5.00. Beginning with 
1867 the Society has published a long series of papers knowTi as 
the Fund Publications, for the support of w^hich the society has 
an endowment. The Fund Publications have recently been dis- 
continued, and since 1906 the society has used its endowTnent to 
sustain the Marj^land Historical Magazine. The Maryland Public 
Records Commission was organized in 1904, is state supported, 
and is charged with the care of the state archives. There are 
three other historical organizations in Maryland. 

There are three historical societies in Kentucky, of which the 
most active is the Filson Club of Louisville, with 400 members I 

and an annual fee of $3.00. Since 1884 this organization has 
issued twenty-seven volumes of Publications. The Kentucky j 

Historical Society appears to have done no work of importance. 
The Kentucky State Historical Society has published since 1903 
The Register. The state appropriates $5,000 a year to support 
this society's work. 

The Virginia Historical Society has 728 members, each of 
whom pays a membership fee of $5.00. The society published 
eleven volumes of Collections, but discontinued the series and 
now issues the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, at 
present in its twenty-fifth volume. The society receives no state 
support, but has an endowment of $12,500. Recently the state 



% 






14 First Annual Session 

has created a department of Archives and History as a division 
of the state library. 

There are in Virginia four other excellent historical publica- 
tions, the Washington and Lee Historical Papers ; the William 
and Mary Quarterly, now in its twenty-fifth volume; the Rich- 
mond College Historical Papers; and the John P. Branch His- 
torical Papers, published by Randolph-Macon College. 

The State Literary and Historical Association of North Caro- 
lina is an exceptionally active body. The membership is 500, 
the annual fee $1.00; sustaining members pay $5.00. Through 
its efforts there was established in 1903 the North Carolina His- 
torical Commission, charged v.ith the custody of the state ar- 
chives not in current use. It is one thing to get the legislature 
to establish such agencies as this commission, it is another to 
find a man who has the knowledge, experience and interest to 
conduct the work ; and North Carolina is fortunate in having the 
right man in Mr. R. D. W. Connor. Two years ago the writer 
had the pleasure of visiting the home of the Commission, which 
leaves nothing to be desired in commodiousness and equipment. 
In fourteen years order has been brought out of chaos in the 
public records; many thousands of precious state papers have 
been rescued from threatened ruin and are now properly filed 
and catalogued and made ready for the use of the historian. 
Many thousands of manuscripts from private sources have been 
obtained and numerous newspaper files brought together. A 
museum full of important and interesting documents and objects 
has been built up. The Commission has published a large num- 
ber of Bulletins, containing accounts of the work of the Com- 
mission and the proceedings of the annual meetings of the Asso- 
ciation. A mass of documentary material has also been publish- 
ed, notable among which is a series of volumes on Education in 
North Carolina. The Commission received this year from the 
state $13,500. It is no accident that North Carolina is far better 
provided with monographic studies on various phases of her his- 
tory than most southern states. The secret is that the state has 
placed in the hands of tlie historians the materials for doing the 
work. 

In addition to the work of the Commi.s.sion and the Associa- 
tion, there are in North Carolina several otlier active historical 



Georglv Historical Association 15 

societies. The Historical Society of the University of North 
Carolina has publislied since 1900 a series of important histori- 
cal studies under the title The James Sprunt Historical Mono- 
graphs. The Historical Society of Trinity College is sponsor for 
a series called Papers, now in the twelfth volume. Trinity Col- 
lege also issues the South Atlantic Quarterly, a magazine de- 
voted to literary and historical matters. 

The South Carolina Historical Society, while one of the oldest 
in the South, has only a small membership and does not appear 
to be notably active. Repeated efforts to secure information 
about historical matters in South Carolina have brought no re- 
sult. The society formerly issued a series known as Collections, 
of which five volumes are mentioned in various publications. In 

1900 the South Carolina Historical and Genealogical ]Magazine 
was begun under the aaspices of the society. In 1905 the South 
Carolina Historical Commission was established. Data is not 
available as to its activities. 

The Tennessee Historical Society has about 300 members. 
Some years ago it published the American Historical Magazine, 
which was discontinued in 1904. In 1915 the society again enter- 
ed the field with the Tennessee Historical Magazine, now in its, 
third volume. Tennessee is backward in the care of her archives. 
A movement is now on foot looking to the establishment of a 
Department of Archives and History. 

Alabama is one of the leading southern statas in historical 
matters. The Alabama Historical Society is not now active, but 
there are several active societies, notably the Alabama History 
Teachers' Association and the Alabama Anthropological Society. 
Thero are also two church historical societies. None of these 
societies has a regular organ. 

Alabama has the distinction of having pointed the way not 
only for the South but for the nation in the establishment of a 
department of Archives and History as one of the departments 
of the state government, coordinate in rank with other depart- 
ments. This department, fathered by influential members of 
the historical Society, was created by legislative enactment in 

1901 and was given large powers, including archives preserva- 
tion and the maintenance of a historical and reference library. 
It was empowered to establish an art gallery and a museum, to 



16 First Annual Session 

conduct library extension work, and to distribute state docu- 
ments. The department has been since its creation under the ef- 
ficient management of ^Ir. T. ^I. Owen and the success of the 
work is due largely to him. The Department publishes a regular 
series of bulletins descriptive of its work and a biennial Official 
and Statistical Register, containing brief sketches of all state 
and local officers, data about education and other activities. 
All the official archives have been centralized, systematized and 
housed in a fire-proof record room. A collection of more than 
100,000 books and pamphlets has been made, including 6,000 
volumes of newspapers and periodicals. A museum and art gal- 
lery has been begun and the numerous paintings of public of- 
I ficials that were scattered over the capital have been brought to- 

1 gether in one room. In response to an appeal to the people of 

1 Alabama for private collections of letters, diaries, and the like, 

I about twenty-five collections have been obtained, including the 

papers of William L. Yancey, J. L. M. Curry, and A. J. Pickett. 
For the current year the state appropriated $12,750 to sustain 
the department. 

Other states quickly followed the lead of Alabama. In Missis- 
sippi and West Virginia separate state departments of archives 
I and history have been established ; in Virginia, as has been said, 

i the archives work was put under the direction of the state 

• - librarj\ Under the form of state historical commissions, similar 

; work is now^ well established in ^Mars'land, North Carolina, South 

i Carolina, Arkansas, and Texas. 

j' Mississippi has been especially successful in adapting the Ala- 

. ; bama plan. The Department of Archives and History was 

created in 1902, and has been since the beginning under the 
direction of Dr. Dunbar Rowland. In the first annual report 
of the department, the following graphic account is given of the 
condition in which Dr. Rowland found the archives: 

"The old library room on the third floor of the capitol building 
was generally used as a place of deposit for the overflow of the de- 
partment, many other rooms on the same floor were used for a like 
purpose and in the course of time an immense mass of the most 
valuable records of the State accumulated in that portion of the 
building. Under such conditions an arrangement or classification of 
1 material by the departments was impossible. Official documents of 

all kinds from all departments wore thrown together In hopeless 
confusion, and in this neglected condition they were generally re- 
garded as old waste papers of no value. The third floor of the 






Georgia Historical Association 17 

Capitol has for many years been entirely neglected, ruin and decay 
are in evidence on all sides, tlie accumulated dust and dirt of years 
is there, and summer suns and winter storms hold sway among the 
musty tomes of the past." 

The weight of the docunients became so great that apprehen- 
sion was felt lest the tloor should give way and precipitate the 
mass on the heads of the Supreme Courts justices in the room 
below. Accordingly the papers were dragged out and sent to 
the state penitentiary, where there chanced to be some unused 
space. The material was packed into fifty boxes utterly without 
regard to contents. 

In the eleventh annual report, the Director was able to say 
that Mississippi is regarded everywhere as a leader in the mat- 
ter of the care of state records. They have all been duly sorted 
out, arranged, properly housed, and the Department is now pub- 
lishing volumes of these paper's. The Director has discovered the 
long lost Confederate records of the state; a Hall of Fame has 
been established ; a biennial Official and Statistical Register is 
issued; and 350 bound volumes of newspapers have been acquired. 
The legislature appropriated for 1917 $8,500 for this work. 

The Mississippi Historical Society is one of the most active 
of our southern state organizations. In 1898 it issued the first 
volume of its Publications and every year since a substantial 
volume of important studies, letters, diaries, memoirs, etc., has 
appeared. Special mention should be made of the studies of Re- 
construction in many ^lississippi counties, work done under the 
guidance of Professor F. L. Riley, now of Washington and Lee 
University. These Publications are issued through the Depart- 
ment of Archives and History and are financed by the state. 

Turning to the Southwest, we find historical activities going 
ahead at full tilt. The Louisiana Historical Society, with head- 
quartei-s at New Orleans, has 400 members. The society has an 
extensive collection of material and a fairly complete set of news- 
papers from 1837 to the present. The organization also o\ms 
200,000 documents which are now being calendared. Since 1895 
it has issued six volumes of Publications and in the present year 
began the publication of a quarterly. ^lore recently the Louisia- 
na Historical Association was organized for the specific purpose 
of collecting Civil AVar records. It receives from the state under 
the con.stitution $1,000 annually, but the legislature usually ap- 



18 



First Annual Session 



propriates from $500 to $1,000 in addition. There is no state 
department of archives and history, and the state records are 
badly scattered. 

Texas boasts an Historical Association of 800 members, with 
an annual fee of $2.00. This society was organized in 1897. It 
publishes the Southwestern Historical Quarterly, now in its 
twentieth volume and ranking with the best southern periodicals. 
The Association receives no state aid, its Quarterly being sup- 
ported by dues. Four hundred libraries and schools subscribe to 
the Quarterly, in addition to the 800 members who receive the 
publication without extra charge. 

In 1907 the Texas State Library and Historical Commission 
was established. It has published two biennial reports, in 1912 
and 1914. The legislature appropriates $12,000 per annum. 
which covers the salaries of the librarian, archivist, legislative 
reference librarian and other assistants. The library is also given 
$5,000 a year for books and a small sum for publishing bulletins. 

In Arkansas there are two historical societies. The Historical 
Society of Arkansas is now dormant. The Arkansas Historical 
Association was organized in 1903 and now has about 100 mem- 
bers, paying $1.00 per year. Through its influence the Arkansas 
Historical Commission was created in 1909. The Commission 
has published three volumes of Reports, consisting of proceed- 
ings of the Association and articles based on research. There is 
also published a quarterly Bulletin, which serves as a guide to 
the material in the collections of the Commission. 

A resume of the above data shows that there are state sup- 
ported departments of archives or historical commissions in nine 
of the fourteen southern states, West Virginia, Mar>dand, Vir- 
ginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Texas, and Arkansas. Georgia is the only one of the older south- 
em states that has failed to establish such a department. 

Secondly, in nine of the southern states one or more substan- 
tial historical publications are maintained. Virginia has five. 
North Carolina, four ; Kentucky and Maryland, two each ; Missis- 
sippi, South Carolina, Texas, Tennessee, Alabama one each. If 
to these we add the recently established quarterlies of Louisiana 
and Georgia, the list is brought up to eleven. It is doubtful 
whether the venture in Georgia will be successful, since the out- 



Georgia Historical Association 19 

put of serious historical study is practically nothing. Though 
Louisiana, had no regularly established organ, the output of his- 
torical literature by scholars in that state has been large. 

It is now apparent to you that Georgia suffers in a comparison 
with all but two or three of the other southern states. And when 
the age and wealth of the state are taken into consideration, the 
difference becomes a reproach. Comparatively nothing has been 
done to arouse general interest in state history and the only part 
of it that is at all systematically treated is the colonial period. 
The vast constitutional, economic, political, and social movements 
of the first half of the nineteenth century remain unrecorded in 
Georgia. A few of the gaps may be mentioned. No history of 
slavery has been wTitten ; there is no account of the state dur- 
ing the Civil War ; we know next to nothing of the constitutional 
development of ante-bellum Georgia ; many of our leading states- 
men still lack biographies; the extremely interesting efforts of 
the state to establish a public school system before 1860 have 
never received attention ; there is no history of internal improve- 
ments, or banking, or taxation. The intricate history of our land 
j)olicy lies buried in the m'usty records ; there is no history of our 
Indian relations that can be called final ; even the state universi- 
ty lacks a history. But not merely must we point out these 
neglected phases of state history; we have sadly to confess that 
it is impossible under present conditions to fill the gaps. The 
archives of the state in the nineteenth century are in such a 
condition that the historian cannot use them. 

We have met here today to inaugurate a movement to change 
all this. After effecting our organization, the most important 
work that lies before us is to get behind a movement to establish 
a department of archives and history. It should not be a dif- 
ficult matter to bring this about, as the state is already invest- 
ing money in this direction which with proper legislative author- 
ity may be utilized to produce vastly better conditions. Since 
1902 the state has provided for the office of Compiler of Records, 
and the Compilers have performed a service of great value to 
the state within the scope of their legal powers. Mr. Knight 
will give you in his paper the facts. He is now moving for the 
creation of a department of archives and history and desires 
our earnest support. 



20 FiR^T Annual Session 

The only other matter that I desire to bring before you at this 
time is the question of the immediate establishment of a publica- 
tion to be devoted to the interests of Georgia history. It is, of 
course, very desirable that this should be done, and at the time 
the informal committee sent out the invitation to you to join this 
organization, mention was made of this matter. The question of 
expense has since been thoroughly canvassed, and it is doubtful 
whether it would be advisable to emibark on such a venture at 
the present time. Apart from the controlling matter of expense, 
there are so few persons now engaged in historical research in 
Georgia that it may be seriously questioned whether the output 
of historical literature would be adequate to sustain a worthy 
publication at fixed intervals. For the present the better policy 
would appear to be to limit ourselves to the publication of an- 
nual Proceedings, containing the papers read before the meetings 
and such other material as the officials of the association may 
desire to incorporate. If this policy were followed for several 
years, the association would gain time to enlarge the memiber- 
ship, perhaps induce more creative interest in historical research, 
and above all bring to light original documents which should be 
the main part of a historical quarterly. 



Georgia Historical Association 



21 



Historiography in Georgia 

By Theodore H. Jack, Ph.D., Professor of History in 
Emory Uciversity. 

It is the purpose of this paper, under the general subject of 
historiography in Georgia, briefly to discass the work of the 
Georgia historians; to appraise, in a fashion, what has already 
Ihh'U done; to attempt to explain the very apparent failures of 
these historians of the State to measure up to their opportunities 
and to the demands of the situation ; and, finally, to indicate, in 
general terms, what remains to be done. 

Even the most filiopietistic among us is compelled to admit, 
when the mailer of historiography in Georgia is under considera- 
tion, that the historical students and writers of the common- 
wealth have lagged far in the rear of the historical procession. 
The mere mention of the historical activities of Massachusetts, 
Illinois. Wisconsin, Iowa, California, Virginia, North Carolina 
proves the point. As we all recognize so clearly, the historical 
field in Georgia has been farmed, if farmed at all, extensively 
rather than intensively. Weighty volum^es, covering large 
stages of our history, have been produced, from time to time; 
but the necessary monographic work, the jewel cutting process 
of the historical profession, so important, miy, so absolutely es- 
sential as a background or foundation for, more ambitious ef- 
forts, more scholarly and critical writing, has been seriously 
neglected, save for a few bright exceptions. A case in point 
is f(mnd in the fact that, as far as is shown in the list of sub- 
jects for doctoral dissertations published annually in the Ameri- 
ean Historical Review, there is not, at present, a single mono- 
trraph in preparation in any of our great graduate schools on 
^i j>rol)lem in Georgia history. This is not the fault of the gradu- 
ate schools, nor does it indicate any radical defects in our young 
Gt'on^iaiis; the fault lies in our failure to provide grist for the 
iiiills to grind. 

For our consideration in this paper, the history of Georgia 
may \w divided roughly into four great sub-divisions, each in 
itsflf practically an independent field, and each demanding 
s'Miicwhat different treatment, viz: (1) the colonial period; 
l2) the revolutionary era; (3) the ante-bellum age and the Civil 
^^'ar; and (4) the period since the Civil War. I'nder each of 



22 First Annual Session 

these divisions, only a few matters may be mentioned, and no 
attempt at even a partial bibliogrraphy will be made. To many, 
the items or the books omitted from consideration may seem more 
important and more interesting than those included; but I beg 
you to remember that there is a personal as well as a time limit. 

For convenience, and to save time, I shall deal with the first 
two of these fields together. 

Though the bibliography of Georgia history for the colonial 
and revolutionary periods is not large nor imposing, yet in these 
two kindred fields more ha.s been accomplished than in any other 
period. Here the material is fairly complete and reasonably 
accessible. As has been largely true throughout the United 
States, interest in colonial and revolutionary history has taken 
precedence over later periods", in early historiography. The prob- 
lems are definite, clearly marked off, and usually extremely in- 
teresting. Of the character and quality of this work in Geor- 
gia, however, not very much can be said in the way of praise. 
Our writers on colonial and revolutionary matters have presented 
for us the casual, the unimportant, the ephemeral, the episodical, 
the nugatory. They have very generally neglected to record the 
matters of moment connected with the character and the life of 
the people. They have, in general, utterly neglected or grievous- 
ly misunderstood Georgia's connection with the other colonies 
prior to and during the American Revolution and her relation- 
ship with the mother country. Political and minutely personal 
material has been stressed, to the exclusion of the social, eco- 
nomic, and religious life of the times. Our earlier historians 
suffered from the usual faults observable in all popular histo- 
riography, and especially from a careless inclusion of mere 
names, the repetition of political events to the exclusion of mat- 
ters often of much more importance, and the recital at length 
of extraordinary or peculiar episodes of no significance, — all 
with a ludicrous disregard of perspective. From the writings of 
such historians it is hard, if not impossible, adequately to pic- 
ture the ordinary life of the people from day to day and the 
part they were actually playing in the building of a new civiliza- 
tion in a wilderness. 

Hugh McCall, the earliest of the nineteenth century students 
of Georgia history, in his History of Georgia, in two volumes. 



T 



Georgia Historicu. Assocution ^ 23 

published at Savannah in 1811 and 1816, deals comprehensively, 
for his times, with the colonial and revolutionary epochs. His 
work is of less value than one would expect, even under the cir- 
cumstances, on account of the physical infirmities which af- 
fected his literary activities disadvantageously, on account of 
the little material which he appears to have had at his dispasal, 
and on accoimt of his utter lack of even a superficial acquaint- 
ance with literary form. Yet McCall's second volume, on the 
Revolution, contains much valuable material for the student of 
revolutionary^ Georgia. 

The first solid production on colonial and revolutionary his- 
tory appeared in 1847 and in 1859 with the publication of the 
two stout volumes of Dr. William Bacon Stevens on the History 
of Georgia from the Discovery to 1798. Dr. Stevens was a man 
of parts, a professor of belles lettres and history in the University 
of Georgia, and in the production of this work he had access to 
a great deal of first hand material, to documentary sources cover- 
ing the labors of the French, the English, and the Spanish in the 
colony. Stevens 's two volumes are, therefore, a storehouse, rich- 
ly stocked for the historian of colonial and revolutionary Geor- 
gia. About the same time Rev. George White appeared, with 
his Statistics of Georgia, 1849, and his Historical Collections 
of Georgia, 1854. The Statistics, though containing little original 
material, exhibited the real ability of White in gathering to- 
gether a wealth of statistics, local and biographical sketches con- 
nected with the histories of the various coimties. The Collec- 
tions was a revision and expansion of the Statistics, and in its 
preparation, White worked in the libraries in Charleston, Savan- 
nah, Milledge\dlle, and New York. He had access to transcripts 
of colonial documents made in London, Paris, and ]\Iadrid, lent 
by the State legislature, and the book "is a collection of material 
for the use of the future historian," well indexed, well written, 
and, for the times, careful and accurate. 

The best and the latest of this group of nineteenth cen- 
tury historians was Charles C. Jones, Jr., whose History of Geor- 
gia, 1883, in two volumes, extends to the close of the Revolution. 
Jones's work is the most comprehensive done on the period. He 
was a specialist in Indian antiquity and an antiquarian of a 
high order, as is shown in his Antiquities of the Southern Indians 



24 First Annual Session 

and his Dead Towns of Georgia. Jones's Biographical Sketches 
of the Delegates from Georgia to the Continental Congress, 1891, 
is an interesting and suggestive work and indicates a valuable 
field of research. It is to be regretted that his contemplated 
volume on the history of Georgia since the Revolution was never 
completed. 

These and other books, of which time prevents any mention, 
together with Candler 's Colonial Records, 25 volumes, and Revo- 
lutionary Records of Georgia, 3 volumes, and the published Col- 
lections of the Georgia Historical Society, 7 volumes, beginning 
in 1840, furnish an excellent groundwork for new and fresh- 
er studies on colonial and revolutionary events and movements. 
Perhaps the most pressing need in this field is an exhaui^live 
and critical study of Georgia in the Revolution, on the order 
of Edward ^IcCrady 's contribution to our knowledge of the Revo- 
lution in South Carolina. The Georgia loyalists, also, deserve 
a new treatment, an excellent start for such being found in the 
pamphlet of 1783 on "The Particular Case of the Georgia Loyal- 
ists." Other movements and fields which will repay attention 
are the Georgia frontier and frontier problems, Georgia under 
the Trustees and under Royal Government, the introduction of 
the democratic churches, the introduction of negro slavery, and 
biographical studies on colonial and revolutionary worthies, such 
as Archibald Bulloch, George Walton, William Houston, James 
Habersham, Abraham Baldwin, and Benjamin Hawkins. The 
sole monograph of a scholarly character in the colonial period 
is J. R. ]\lcCain's The Executive in Proprietary Georgia, the 
author's doctoral dissertation at Columbia University. 

It is painfully apparent that little has been done in writ- 
ing -the history of Georgia in colonial and revolutionary times, 
and that that little has been done in a crude, unscholarly, un- 
scientific fashion, with insufticient material and ineffective treat- 
ment. Yet far more deplorable is the situation we find when 
we turn to a consideration of the period of our history from the 
close of the American Revolution to the close of the Civil War. 
Here less has been done than in any other liekl ; here the most 
glaring defects occur. The State of Georgia lias no ade((uate ac- 
count of her history in tlic ante-bellum period; and. as the State 
Compiler of Records has pointed out, and will doubtless point 



♦ ■] 



Georgia Historical Association 25 

out a^ain, such an undertaking has been and is now impossible 
IxM-ause the records of the State are not in any condition for use 
l»y tlie historical student. I venture to say that this is a situa- 
Uoi\ practically unparalleled in the United States; and the 
.seriousness of it on all historical work in Georgia is too apparent 
to demand further mention here. Phillips's Georgia and State 
Kights, "1901, to which mast students out of Georgia have to re- 
sort for any information on the period, is brief and purely politi- 
cah Avery's History of Georgia, 1881, beginning with the year 
1850, is largely concerned with the life and career of Joseph E. 
Brown. There are certain valuable features connected with 
George G. Smith's Story of Georgia and the Georgm People, 
l!H»0, covering trie hisiury of Georgia from 1732 to 1860. and 
despite its apparent defects, particularly the absence of any 
citations to authorities and its reliance on secondary material, 
it is perhaps of more general value than any other work in the 
field. It is particularly valuable because of the county histories 
which make up a considerable part of the book. 

During this same period there appears a similar though not 
so complete neglect of biographical contributions. There are, 
it is true, lives of many of the distinguished Georgians of the 
ante-bellum scene, but few of these are definitive. Of great value 
are the biographies of Alexander H. Stephens by Cleveland, 
1S{\G, Johnston and Browne, 1878, and Pendleton, 1907. Har- 
den 's Life of Troup, 1840, would serve as an excellent basis for 
a new treatment of this interesting and important public man 
of the early nineteenth century. Fielder's Life, Times, and 
Speeches of Joseph E. Brown, 1883, is of value not as a biography 
but a.s a collection of material ; and the same thing may practical- 
ly 1)0 said of Stovall's Robert Toombs, 1892. The best piece of 
work that has been done in this field, and a biography that ranlvS 
in the forefront of biographical work during the past decade, 
is r. B. Phillips's Life of Robert Toombs, 1913. But there are 
no biographies worthy of consideration of such eminent Geor- 
gians as John McPherson Berrien, William H. Crawford, John 
Forsyth, ]\Ioses Wadtlell, James Jackson (though Charlton's 
Life of Jackson. 1809, reprinted in 1896, furnishes wotulerfully 
L'ood and complete material), I^. 11. Hill, Ilerschel V. Johnson, 
F. S. Bartow, Wilson Lumpkin, Howell Cobb, Charles J. Mo- 



26 First Annual Session 

Donald. A valuable contribution to an understanding of the 
period in which most of these men lived is found in the Toombs, 
Stephens, and Cobb Correspondence, assembled and edited for 
the American Historical Association by U. B. Phillips, Annual 
R<3port, 1911, vol. II. As attractive a JSeld for an interesting and 
illuminating biography as can be found anywhere would take 
into consideration the life of Judge Augustus B. Longstreet, 
lawyer, judge, editor, preacher, humorist, college, preteidciut. 
These men just mentioned are all, or most of them, of national 
importance and reputation. Yet just as excellent opportunities 
for students of history are to be found in biographical investiga- 
tions on men of lesser fame, men w^hose reputation was largely 
confined within the bounds of the State, such men as Peter Early, 
Judge John M. Dooly, Joseph Habersham, John Houston, John 
and Elijah Clarke, Logan E. Bleckley, Alexander Means, for 
examples. The opportunity for such minor biographical research 
would lead into a consideration of governors, senators and repre- 
sentatives in the United States Congress, lawyers, judges, minis- 
ters, educators, men of affairs. 

A neglected field, and one in w^hich work of the very greatest 
interest and value has been done in many other states, is that 
of the constitutional development of the commonwealth prior 
to the Civil War. The history of parties and party politics, 
briefly considered in Phillips's Georgia and State Rights, well 
merits more elaborate treatment by the historical students of the 
State. Slavery, the plantation system, colonization and emancipa- 
tion societies, the economics of slave labor; the history of cotton 
and cotton cultivation ; the growth of sectionalism, nullification, 
and secession ; ethnic factors in early Georgia population, the chief 
movements of population into the State, religious and racial ele- 
ments and influences; the relations of the Indians with the State 
and with the Federal Government; the land question, and the 
w^orkings of the public land system in Georgia ; the Georgia 
newspapei*s and their influence; internal improvements; frontier 
problems ; the extension of the suffrage ; the development of the 
commerce of the Georgia ports, Savannah, Brunswick, and others, 
with Latin America and witli Europe — tliese subjects all de- 
mand and deserve consideration, consideration which has been 
thas far largelv lacking. Pioneer work has been done on the 



Georgia Historical Association 27 

question of transportation by U. B. Phillips, in his History of 
Transportation in the Eastern Cotton Belt to 1860, 1908. 

C. E. Jones has compiled, for the Bureau of Education, in 
"Washington, a History of Education in Georgia, 1890, now long 
since out of date, and there is a thoroughly inadequate history 
of the University of Georgia by A. L. Hull, 1894. Save for these, 
there are no histories of education nor of the various higher edu- 
cational institutions in Georgia. 

It is surprising how few histories of the counties, cities, and 
towns of Georgia have been written. There are accounts of the 
larger cities, such as Atlanta, Savannah, Macon, and Augusta, 
but the towns, such historically important places as Milledge- 
viile, Washington, Elberton, etc., have hcen sadly neglected. 

This same dearth appears when we consider the fields of 
finance, banking and taxation. 

The material for a study of Georgia during the Civil W"ar 
must be abundant, and anyone who has the slightest acquaint- 
ance with the period or with the career of Governor Joseph E. 
BrowTi knows that Georgia furnishes as interesting and as fertile 
a field as is to be found in the whole history of the epoch. Yet 
we have no history, modern in its scope and pitch, on the great 
state in action. In addition to the books mentioned above as 
bearing on this field, J. T. Derry, in Evans's Confederate Mili- 
tary History, vol. VI, Georgia, has an account of the history of 
the State during the war, largely from the military standpoint. 
Hardly any other subject in Georgia history would give greater 
returns for the labor expended than would this. 

In the field of ecclesiastical history a great deal remains to 
be done, though profitable and creditable beginnings have been 
made. The material here is abimdant, though, I imagine, scat- 
tered and difficult to locate, and the returns will well repay the 
effort. 

George G. Smith ranks first, perhaps, in the work already done 
in this aspect of our State's development, with his contributions 
to the history and biography of ^lethodism in Georgia. His 
History' of ]\Iethodism in Georgia and Florida, 1877, his Life 
of Bishop James 0. Andrew, and liis Life and Times of Bishop 
George Foster Pierce, 1888. constitute a contribution to tlie ec- 
clesiastical history of the State unsurpassed elsewhere in the 



28 FiR^T Annual Session 

South. J. II. Campbell, in Georgia Baptists, 1874, has done a 
creditable piece of work for the Baptist denomination, one 
which will be of distinct value for later historians of the Baptists. 
And there is, also, a considerable amount of monographic ma- 
terial in this field. But there is as yet no treatment of the rise 
and spread of the democratic churches in Georgia, nor of the 
vital significance of the religious bodies in the slavery contro- 
vei-sy. A profitable field of research for the local historian is 
to be found in studies of the organization of the local churches, 
such as Hopewell, or the old ^lidway church of Liberty county, 
dealt with already in James Stacy's History of Midway Church, 
Liberty County, Georgia, 1899; or in the work of the pioneer 
preachers, such as the .Methodist circuit riders; or in accounts 
of revivals ; or of the educational activities of the various denomi- 
nations. Je.sse ]\Iercer has been the subject of a biographical 
study, but a fresh treatment of such a character and of other 
men of like prominence in denominational struggles would be of 
real value in any effort to understand the history and develop- 
ment of the commonwealth. 

As a part of the magnificent work for Southern history car- 
ried on in the historical seminar^' of Professor William A. Dun- 
ning, of Columbia University, the period of recostruction, as far 
as the general treatment of ihe field is concerned, has been quite 
adequately develoi)ed. Ground was broken by E. C. Woolley's 
monograph, 1901, while the whole period has been most thorough- 
ly and satisfactorily developed in recent yeai*s by Miss C. ^lil- 
dred Thompson, now of Vassar College, in her excellent His- 
tory of Reconstruction in Georgia. Opportunity yet remains, 
liowever, for considerable work of a very valuable sort in the his- 
tory of the reconstruction period in many of the counties — such 
Work as has been carried on in ^lississippi b}^ Professor F. L. 
Riley, and by students in other Southern states. 

As a matter of fact, by far the most satisfactory work that 
has hct-n done in historical rcsi^arch in Georgia has fallen in the 
period since the Civil War. A new group of historical students, 
interestt'd in the pr;)blems of the South and of Georgia, and train- 
ed in the ninst approved nu4hods of historical research, has arisen 
and has attacked the varied social and economic prt)blems of the 
period with energy, enthusiasm, and ability. The material for 



Georgia Historical Association 29 

the study of this era is at hand, and the aid of the federal govern- 
ment has been furnished to investigators. ^Monographs and more 
ambitious works that are a distinct credit to historiography in 
Georgia have been produced. Yet a great deal of work on the 
social and economic development of the State remains to be done. 
Among the most creditable accomplishments falling within this 
period may be mentioned E. ]\I. Banks's Economics of Land Ten- 
ure in Georgia, R. P. Brooks's Agrarian Revolution in Georgia, 
and L. F. Schmerkebier's Taxation in Georgia. 

With such a fruitful field of labor why has not more been ac- 
complished ? And so we come now to consider Georgia's apolo- 
gia. 

1. In the first place, there is the question of econumic pressure 
and engrossment in business. However great or impelling our 
interest in past movements, however energetic or competent we 
may be, the occasion must wait on the opportunity. The collec- 
tion of historical material and the composition of historical work 
cannot satisfactorily be pursued until the proper economic basis 
has been reached. Since the Civil War, and practically until 
this present day, we of the South and of Georgia have of neces- 
sity been primarily concerned in getting a living. The things of 
the spirit have waited on the things of the Hesh. 

2. In the second place, our people have suffered from a failure 
to appreciate the importance and value, to vsay nothing of the 
interest, of local history, — that field of historical research now 
the most vital and compelling of all, in which the returns are 
probably the greatest and the requirements in time and money 
least, — in which there need not of necessity be very extensive 
research nor excessive expense. 

3. In the next place, we have failed miserably in the South 
and in Georgia to realize the importance and the necessity of the 
})reservation of family, business, and plantation papers. — papers 
apparently of purely personal or local interest, but fundamental 
in the adequate ti*eatment of .social and economic history. This 
failure is all the more remarkable when we consider the pride 
of family in the South. 

4. Again, we have failed in furnishing proj)er direction, prop- 
er and adequate training, even when leisure, desire, ability, and 
opportunity are present. The colleges of Georgia have failed 



30 First Annual Session 

in most cases to furnish for the youth of our commonwealth 
proper training in American and Southern history and in the 
handling of historical material. Despite the excellent work that 
tho patrotic societies are now engaged in, — such work of col- 
lection, preservation, and composition as the Daughters of the 
American Revolution, the Colonial Dames, the United Daughters 
of the Confederacy, and the United Confederate Veterans are 
fostering, — this work has been only lately entered upon and has 
been none too vigorously promoted. In both of these cases, how- 
ever, very apparent improvement must be noted. 

5. In the next place, meagre, if any, opportunities have been 
furnished for publication and dissemination of meritorious work. 
Here we have been sadly in need of an alert, aggressive, state- 
wide historical organization in Georgia, backing the publication 
of a first class historical journal. 

6. And finally, and most important, there is the problem and 
the difficulty of the State's archives, — their inaccesibility, their 
lack of arrangement, and their scattered condition, — a theme 
which must properly be left for the consideration of the Com- 
piler of State Records, a man who knows the conditions best and 
appreciates and deplores them most deeply. 

> Probably a division of labor between the two historical or- 
ganizations in the State, the Georgia Historical Society and the 
Georgia Historical Association, would promote interest and aid 
in the development of historical work. Perhaps a tacit agree- 
ment might be entered into whereby the Georgia Historical So- 
ciety would devote its time, energy, and money to the colonial 
and revolutionary periods, leaving to the Georgia Historical As- 
sociation the care of the period since the Revolution. Though 
such a division of labor could not and ought not to be rigidly 
adhered to, yet such a division would lassen the burden of col- 
lection, preservation, and publication of material, and would 
servT, also, to establish more satisfactorily the entente cordiale 
between the old and the new. 

In few states of this union, I venture to say, have so many 
fertile fields of historical invest ijrat ion been left so long untilled, 
so many opportunities for constructive contributions in historical 
research Ix^en allowed to pass neglected. With tho important 
share of Georgia in the buildincr of the nation, with her wonder- 



Georglv Historical Association 31 

fill resources and striking history, these neglected opportunities 
are all the more deplorable. May we not here, on this birth day 
of a new historical organization, consecrate ourselves and "our 
talents anew to this great work and determine that the history 
of our great common vrealth, the Empire State of the South, 
shall not longer be neglected? 



32 First Annual Session 

The Condition of Georgia's Archives 

By Mrs. Maud Barker Cobb, State Librarian. 

It is needless to recount in detail before this audience the many 
vicissitudes thru which the Archives of Georgia have passed. 
As students of Georgia history you have been more or less pain- 
fully aware of them. 

You know of the wholesale destruction of records which accom- 
panied the War of the Revolution, and later the Civil War. You 
know that there was loss of official papers incident to each re- 
moval of the capital from one point to another. You no doubt 
still feel the shock of the loss by fire of the transcript of Geor- 
gia's London records, which had been laboriously made at great 
expense to the State, by the Rev. Charles Wallace Howard, com- 
missioned by Governor Gilmer in 1838, to perform the long 
coveted work authorized by the Legislature in the previous year. 

This is no occasion to expatiate on these regrettable incidents. 
There is no ase crying over spilled milk. However, we can and 
should profit by these experiences to the extent of protecting the 
records we have left. Locking the stable door after a horse is 
stolen is not an unwise thing to do when there is another horse 
left inside. 

Investigations made in connection with the preparation of this 
paper have convinced me that a rich field is^ afforded in the 
archives still existing in the Capitol building despite the many 
and deplorable los.ses ; that it is a field that is becoming more and 
more impoverished with the years; that the life of the records 
as they stand is a losing one ; that each day makes its own inroads 
of injury, where verily both ''moth and dust doth corrupt." 

We are told to "read the lesson of the past in order to teach 
the present how to shape the future." Archives constitute the 
only true juul accurate medium by which the present can know 
the pjist. 

Georgia, as one of the thirteen original states, with a noble 
history dating back to the early days of the 18th century, should 
cease to be negligent of the ivcords of that history. Such indif- 
ference is unworthy of such origin. ILu* archives should be 
brought tt)gcther and classitied ; they should be environed with 
dignity and safety, and presided over by a competent archivist 



Georgia Historical Association 33 

to the end that they may be pernifinently preserved, — this should 
be done not alone with a view to the edification of future genera- 
tions but for our own self respect as well. 

Any effort to this effect will not fail to receive cordial co- 
operation from our Secretary of State, in w^hose office a majority 
of the Archives are filed. 

Among them are two old volumes of Wills of 175-i-79 contain- 
ing official copies of wills registered in tTiat period. The volumes 
are in such a state of dilapidation as to be literally dropping to 
pieces. An Inventory of Appraisement covering the period 1755- 
70 is in quite as bad condition. 

A trifle more delay, a little longer procrastination, and Geor- 
gia will have added these priceless volumes to her already too 
long list of lost Archives. 

Relative to an effort which the Secretary of State himself made 
a few years ago to induce the Legislature to provide adequate 
facilities for housing these and other precious old volumes, Mr. 
Cook relates this incident: 

An appointment had been made for a Legislative Committee 
to meet him in his office as Secretary of State and hear his recom- 
mendations. At the appointed hour one member of the Com- 
mittee appeared ahead of the others, and when i\Ir. Cook showed 
him the dilapidated old volumes, the member turned away dis- 
gustedly and said: "I wouldn't give thirty cents for the lot of 
them." 

Until the State Archives can be assembled in one place under 
some sort of classification, however general, any lists that may be 
made of fractional parts here and there, will be of negligible 
value, for the reason that the shifting and the removal to the 
basement to w^hich the official papers are subject, render it im- 
possible to take up the work of listing where previous lists leave 
off. 

The preparation of the Bibliography herewith submitted in- 
volved the handling of several thousand books and papers. Yet 
it is scarcely more than a nucleus, — a mere beginning; and while 
it refers chiefly to documents in the office of the Secretary of 
State, it also brings to light some valuable matter contained in 
other departments of the state government. 

Many documents of the E.xeeutive Department have been lost 



34 First Annu.vl Session 

througli the custom of ''cleaning up" for each in-coming 
governor. 

In the valuable paper of Dr. Ulrich B. Phillips on "The Public 
Archives of Georgia" published in the annual report of the 
American Historical Association for 1903, appears a carefully 
prepared list of documents located in certain rooms of the Capitol 
building. In verifying this list fifteen years later, I find some 
very definite changes have taken place. For example, Dr. Phil- 
lips refers to the "main document room of the Executive Depart- 
ment/' and its "tall cases of dust-proof pigeon holes containing 
original papers in large numbers, dating chiefly in the period 
since the close of the reconstruction." "They deal with the 
school fund, military fund, public buildings, lunatic asylum, in- 
surance statements, justice of the peace, notaries public, applica- 
tions, requisitions, pardons granted and refused." So far as 
I have been able to discover, there are now no papers in the Exe- 
cutive Department answering to this description. 

Dr. Phillips refers to a document room on the third floor of 
the Capitol, which he describes as "an overflow document room 
of the Executive Office." He describes the contents of the room 
as "Original documents for the ante-bellum period, and for the 
Civil War and Reconstruction," and says that "for the purpose 
of historical investigation many of these documents are among 
the most important in the Capitol." Alas for the scattering of 
these documents ! To accommodate a new department, created 
by the Legislature a few years since, it became necessary to con- 
vert the third floor document room into an office room. The con- 
tents were removed; one item, namely: "Deeds, bonds, bills of 
sale, mortgages, leases, wills, and powers of attorney, recorded 
in the secretary's office of the State of Georgia, August 25, 1780, 
to December 13, 1781," was placed in tlie office of the Secretary 
of State. 

Some of the records proved to bo contained in certain boxes 
that are stored in the basement. In another room of the base- 
ment was found a mass of official papei-s heaped on the floor like 
so much rubbish, — all that was loft of thorn. I was told, the main 
body of the papers having boon dumped into the furnace and 
burned. 

In the rubbish heap referred to, was found a bundle of "West- 



Georgia Historical Association 35 

ern and Atlantic Railroad papers of 1846-1847. These records 
have been eagerly sought by the W. & A. Commission, who have 
performed excellent work in collecting material pertaining to 
the State road. There were found also other items listed by Dr. 
Phillips which immistakably identify this mass of papers as a 
part of the records formerly in the third floor room. All that 
remain of the papers have been boxed until such time as they 
can be analyzed by the proper official. 

The condition of State Records at the Capitol is no doubt re- 
peated with variations in nine-tenths of the counties of the State. 
"Whatever movement is set afoot for the preservation of State 
Records at the Capitol should embrace also in its scope county 
records, in order that a system may be developed whereby the 
history of the entire State of Georgia as set forth in original 
sources may be presented in a manner commensurate with its 
importance. 

For valuable assistance in the preparation of the check list 
which follows* I am indebted to my Assistant Librarian, Miss Car- 
rie L. Dailey, whose enthusiastic interest and patient work in 
Georgia Records has made it possible for me to submit a report 
on Georgia Archives which I trust will prove to be of real value 
in furthering the aim of this Association. 



1727373 



•The check list will be found on pp. 49-61. 



36 First Annual Session 

Georgia's Most Vital Need: A Department of Archives 

By LuciAN Lamar Knight, A.M., LL.D., Compiler of Records. 

I am not an alarmist. But I come to sound an alarm. If the 
materials of Georgia 's history are to be conserved, the mast vital 
need of our state at this time is a Department of Archives. Not 
a temporary make-shift but a permanent bureau of history, to 
constitute within itself a separate and distinct sphere of work and 
to correlate with other departments of the state government. 
Georgia, for nearly two centuries, has been making history for 
America, but indifferent to its preservation she has neglected 
the fundamental basis on which alone her history can rest — 
the proper care of her records. It is time for the state to realize 
that such a policy is suicidal. Material wealth cannot embalm a 
state. Immortality is not the gift of trade. Rome was destroyed 
by her avarice ; Greece was corrupted by her gold ; and what we 
know today of these nations of antiquity we owe to historians. 

Scattered over the state — ^some in our official archives at the 
capitol — some in our various court-houses — some in the libraries 
of private citizens — there are priceless volumes, manuscripts, 
docum,ents and pamphlets, of which no care is taken, for the pro- 
tection of which no adequate means are provided. These records 
are exposed to a thousand hazards, such as dampness, mildew, 
fire, theft, and vemiin. This neglect is without excuse, is, in 
fact, almost criminal, when we remember that the soul of Geor- 
gia is embodied in these records. I employ language none too 
strong. We expose ourselves to just censure for failing adequate- 
ly to safeguard the materials out of w^hich the future history of 
our state is to be constructed. 

There is only one way in v;hich we can solve this difficult prob- 
lem and avert this imminent danger. We must establish a De- 
partment of Archives, — a depository in which to assemble all the 
records which have ceased to be current. Centralized at the seat 
of government, the ramifications of this department should ex- 
tend to every court-house in Georgia ; if possible, to every burial- 
ground and to every church register. In charge of this depart- 
ment there should be a competent archivist, elected for a definite 
term of years, by a commission or otherwise, whose duties roughly 
defined should be: to assemble, classify, and arrange for con- 



GeorgIxI Historical Association 37 

venient reference the archives of the state, at present scattered 
throughout the capitol; to collect from the files of old news- 
papers, court records, church records, private collections, etc., 
all data pertaining to the history of Georgia, from the earliest 
times, and to have such materials properly edited, published, 
and distributed ; to encourage the proper marking and preserv^a- 
tion of battle-fields, houses, and other places celebrated in the 
history of Georgia ; to diffuse knowledge in reference to the state ; 
to encourage the study of Georgia history in the public schools ; 
to encourage historical research and investigation, especially with 
reference to the preservation of local histories; and to make a 
biennial report to the Governor of all receipts and disbursements. 
We must proceed upon systematic lines. We must rest our 
activities upon an organized basis. 

THE COMPILER'S OFFICE: A RETROSPECT. 

The nucleus for such a department already exists in an office 
temporarily created : that of Compiler of Records. Some review, 
therefore, of the nature, origin, and work of this office is re- 
quired at this point in our discussion. The first effort, of which 
we find any record, on the part of our state government, to "pre- 
serve its history was made in 1825 during the administration of 
Governor Troup. The legislature, at this time, authorized Joseph 
Vallence Bevan to search the archives for information touching 
the Indian tribes of Georgia. Mr. Bevan 's report is still pre- 
served. (Governor's Message to the General Assembly, Novem- 
ber 7, 1825; Indian Affairs, Volume 2, pp' 184-794). 

In 1837, the Governor was authorized by a legislative act to ap- 
point some one to repair at once to London for the purpose of 
procuring Georgia's colonial records, or copies thereof. Under 
authority of this act. Governor Gilmer appointed the Rev. Charles 
Wallace Howard, a Presbyterian clergyman. Dr. Howard re- 
mained abroad two years, engaged almast unremittingly in copy- 
ing records. These grew into twenty-two manuscript volumes 
which Dr. Howard, on returning home, deposited in the secretaiy 
of state's office. Here they remained until 1848 when, in order 
to give Dr. Wm. B. Stevens access to them for a history which 
he was then engaged in prepariufr, they were removed to Savan- 
nah. Here they remained in the custody of the State Historical 



38 ' First Annual Session 

Society for thii-ty-five years, when they were loaned to Colonel 
Charles C. Jones, Jr., whose history appeared in 1883. The 
records were then restored to the secretary of state 's office. Later 
on, however, they were loaned to Professor Scomp, of Emory 
College, only to be destroyed in 1891, when Professor Scomp 's 
splendid library fell a prey to the flames. Thus, after a lapse 
of fifty years. Georgia stood, with respect to her records, exactly 
where she stood in 1838. 

But it was not for another full decade that any steps were 
taken to retrieve this disaster. Finally, on December 23, 1902, 
an executive order was signed by Governor Terrell authorizing 
former Governor Allen D. Candler to compile for publication the 
Colonial, Revolutionary and Confederate Records of Georgia. 
Before relinquishing the helm of state, Governor Candler had 
repeatedly called attention to the condition of the records, urg- 
ing upon the legislature the importance of this step. We find 
an allusion to it in each message. His persistency, in this respect, 
recalls the example of the Roman Cato. It was, therefore, emi- 
nently appropriate that a man like Governor Candler, distinguish- 
ed in public affairs, esteemed for his exalted character, familiar 
with the state's history and impressed with the necessity of sav- 
ing its endangered records, should be called upon to execute this 
difficult assignment. The remainder of his life — a segment of 
seven years — was unremittingly given to this task, the magnitude 
of which was not, in the beginning,- fully realized. But the re- 
sult speaks for itself; and, in the years to come, these records 
will constitute his most enduring monument. 

We need not multiply details. Suffice it to say that, besides 
having the London records re-copied, Governor Candler left no 
stone unturned. Every promising source of information was 
put under tribute and every avenue of research exliausted. At 
the time of his death in 1910 Governor Candler had compiled not 
less than 51 volumes in manuscript, some of which were large 
enough to be divided into two parts; and of these, 39 related to 
the Colonial Period, 5 to the Revolutionary Period, and 7 to the 
Confederate Period. Half of these volumes had been put into 
print. Governor Xorthen, his successor in office, was prevented 
by the infirmities of age and the handicaps of political embar- 
rassment from addins? materiallv to Governor Candler's work. 



Georgia Historical Association 39 

Removed from office by a Governor with whom he was not in ac- 
cord and by whom he was not understood, the manuscripts of 
his office were edited and put into sealed packages by an assist- 
ant, Miss L. T. Hendereon, whose work, as far as the exigences 
of the moment permitted her to go. cannot be too highly praised. 
Governor Northen, soon after his restoration to office, was pros- 
trated by fatal illness. 

On April 2, 1913, following the death of Governor Northen, 
the present Compiler of Records entered upon his duties, by ap- 
pointment of Governor Brown. Besides editing, annotating, in- 
dexing and publishing the Candler manuscripts, he undertook 
by authority of the Legislature some additional work, including 
the compilation of records for intermediate periods, the im- 
portance of which was most urgent, since these periods were not 
covered by any existing state histories, except in the barest out- 
lines. During the past four years, therefore, in addition to is- 
suing eight volumes of the Candler manuscripts, I have, under 
the authority thus granted, made an exhaustive study of the state 
archives, putting special emphasis upon the Executive Minutes; 
have gathered together from various sources a fair collection of 
historical pamphlets; have installed a bureau of historical clip- 
pings; have compiled in manuscript a roster of the General As- 
sembly since Georgia has been a commonwealth; and completed 
for publication this summer a roster of Georgia troops in the 
Revolution. I have also used, every effort to encourage the writ- 
ing of local histories, with the result that such histories have 
been undertaken for Clinch, Lo\vndes, Decatur, Habersham, 
TVhitefield, Crawford, and other counties. This has all been ac- 
complished with the help of only one stenographer. But this is 
only a tithe — a mere fragment — of what still remains to be ac- 
complished. 

LIST OF CANDLER MANUSCRIPTS STILL 
UNPUBLISHED, 

Thirty-three volumes of the Candler manuscripts have been 
published. These include: 25 for the Colonial Period, 3 for the 
Revolutionary Period, and 5 for the Confederate period. The 
manuscript of volume XX was lost some few years ago by a 
publishing house to which this volume was entrusted, and the 



40 First Annual Session 

subsequent failure of the publishers left the state without re- 
course. This was before the present Compiler entered upon his 
duties. It will be necessary^ at some future time, to recopy this 
volume. The unpublished Candler manuscripts, nineteen in num- 
ber, are as follows: 

VOLUME XXVII — Original Papers of the Trustees, President and 
Assistants, Governor John Reynolds, Lieut-Governor Henry El- 
lis, and others. 1740-1756. 
VOLUME XVIII — Part 1. Original Papers of Governors Reynolds, 

Ellis, Wright, and others. 1757-1763. 
VOLUME XXVIII — Part 2. Original Papers of Governor Wright, 
Acting Governor Habersham, Lieut-Governor Graham, and 
others. 1764-1782. 
VOLUME XXIX — Entr>' Books. 1732-1738. 
VOLUME XXX — Trustees' Letter Books. 1738-1745. 
VOLUME XXXI — Trustees' Letter Books. 174 5-1752. 
VOLUME XXXII — Entry Books of Commissions, Powers, Instruc- 
tions, Leases, etc., by the Trustees. 1732-1738. 
VOLUME XXXIII — Entry Books of Commissions, Powers, Instruc- 
tions, Leases, etc., by the Trustees. 1738-1754. 
VOLUME XXXIV — Entry Books of Commissions, Powers, Instruc- 
■ tions, Leases, etc., by the Trustees. Commissions Special and 
Oeneral to Governors Reynolds, Ellis and Wright. 1754-1781. 
VOLUME XXXV — Original Papers of Governor Oglethorpe, the Trus- 
tees, and others. 1732-1742. 
VOLUME XXXVI — Original Papers of Governor Oglethorpe, the 

Trustees, and others. 1742-1751. 
VOLUME XXXVII — Original Papers. Correspondence of Governor 
Wright, the Earl of Egmont, the Earl of Halifax, the Right Hon. 
Henry Seymour Conway, the Duke of Richmond, the Earl of 
S^ielbourne, the Earl of Hillsborough, President James Haber- 
sham, and others. Indian Talks. 1761-1772. 
VOLUME XXXVIII — Part 1. Original Papers. Correspondence of 
. Governor Wright, President James Habersham, the Earl of 
Hillsborough, the Earl of Dartmouth, and others. Indian treat- 
ies, Relinquishments, etc. 1772-1775. 
VOLUME XXXVIII — Part 2. Original Papers. Correspondence of 
Governor Wright, Earl of Dartmouth, Lord Germain, William 
Knox, Lord Cornwallis, Lieut. -Governor Graham, and others. 
1775-1782. 
VOLUME XXXIX — Entry Books, Letters, Memorials, Petitions, etc., 
of General Oglethorpe, the Trustees, Governors Reynolds, Ellis 
and Wright. 1733-1783. Journal Southern Congress. 1763. 
Indian Treaties, etc. 1733-1783. 



Georglv HistoriCxVL Association 41 

CONFEDERATE. 

VOLUME V — Part 1. Laws Relative to Organization and Equip- 
ment of Troops. Public Defence, etc. 1860-1870. 
VOLUME V — Part 2. Extracts from Journals of the Senate. 1860- 

1866. 
VOLUME V — Part 3. Extracts from Journals of the House of Rep- 
resentatives. 1860-1866. 
VOLUME VII — Extracts from House and Senate Journals. 1860- 
1866. Thomas H. Ruger, Provisional Governor, 1868. Rufus 
H. Bulloch, Governor, 1868-1871. 

These manuscript volumes are in sealed packages, all of which 
are labeled with a summary of contents, to which is added the 
inclusive dates. The work of compilation is virtually complete; 
but in preparing each volume for the printer there is much pre- 
liminary labor involved. This work is not of a clerical but of 
an editorial character, consisting of marginal annotations, cap- 
tions, etc. The proof-sheets must be carefully read. Then an 
index must be made, for which in the selection of key-words the 
greatest care is required. If the work is performed by one who 
is not familiar with Georgia's history or by one unskilled in 
technical work of this kind a door-way is opened for countless 
errors and mistakes, the effect of which will be to invalidate these 
records. If the work is worth doing at all it is worth doing well. 
Records in which errors abound are worse than worthless. 

All of the Candler manuscripts have been copied in pencil. 
This is due to an iron-clad rule of the British Public Records Of- 
fice which forbids the use of pen and ink. Some of the records 
are already blurred. Wherever the moisture has penetrated, the 
copy has been impaired. Consequently, there must be no unnces- 
essary delay in putting these manuscripts into type. Otherwise, 
it will soon be difficult to decipher them ; and in the course of 
time the necessity may arise for re-copying them altogether, at 
heavy additional cost to the State. But the requisites of careful 
work render it inexpedient to publish more than two volumes 
per annum, certainly not more than four. The old adage of the 
Greeks, "hasten slowly," well applies in this connection. 

Governor Candler made one very serious mistake. He pub- 
lished some of the earliest volumes in editions too large, antici- 
pating a demand which was not subsequently realized. But 
records are not romances or novels. Thev are onlv skeletons, 



42 First Annual Session 

and in themselves constitute dry reading for the average in- 
dividual. Consequently not a few volumes have accumulated 
in the basement of the capitol. These should be distributed to 
schools or exchanged for the publications of other states. Pre- 
sent editions are limited to 300 copies. Our history ought not 
to be commercialized, but placed within the reach of all. Its 
effect thus placed will be educational to the highest degree — an 
inspiration to the youth of our state and a magnificent discipline 
for coming Georgians. This office is not, and should not be, 
primarily, a source of revenue, but a bureau of information. If^ 
incidentally, a few copies are sold to purchasers, well and good. 
But the essential thing for which the department exists is the 
preservation of our records. Subordinate to this main purpose 
there are four things: compilation, publication, distribution, in- 
struction. 

REASONS FOR ESTABLISHING A DEPARTMENT OF 

ARCHIVES. 

1. Even the most superficial knowledge of conditions existing 
at present in our state capitol emphasizes the need pf establish- 
ing at once a Department of Archives. There is not a depart- 
ment of the state whose capacity is not already taxed. The de- 
mand for space in which to assemble current records has be- 
come so great that unavoidably those records which have ceased 
to be current present a serious problem. It often happens there- 
fore that old records are relegated to back rooms or packed into 
out-of-the-way corners, where an absence of light augments the 
danger of lass. Moreover, the current business of the state im- 
poses upon the head of each department such a burden of respon- 
sibility that he lacks the patience, the inclination and the time 
for investigating the archives, whenever search is desired. To 
provide a central depository therefore in which to house these 
records would accomplish a two-fold purpose; — it would relieve 
the congestion above indicated and would insure the preserva- 
tion, care, and expert knowledge of old records, the value of 
which to our state is beyond computation. 

2. In presen'ing the materials of our history, we have lagged 
far behind other stntes of the Union. Alabama and Mississippi 
• — states carved out of Georgia's territory — have for years main- 



Georgia Historical Association 43 

tained such departments efficiently organized and splendidly 
equipped. The former luider Dr. Thomas M. Owen, the latter 
under Dr. Dunbar Rowland, are both doing a magnificent work ; 
and if Georgia fails to emulate the example thus set before her 
she will eventually be outdistanced by her own off-spring. It 
was my good fortune some time ago to visit the Alabama, Depart- 
ment of Archives and History at i\Iontgomery, and I was amazed 
at the exhibit. Dr. Owen has done a marvelous work. The 
department is a monument to this man — to his industry, to his 
state pride, and to his genius as an organizer. He has filled the 
entire basement with the gathered materials of Alabama's his- 
tory^ including newspaper files, manuscripts, and pamphlets. 
Besides, he occupies a large part of the second tioor, utilizing 
for his collection, every hall, passage-way and corridor. The 
state of North Carolina in 1903 organized a State Historical 
Commission, of which Dr. R. D. W. Connor has been the domi- 
nating spirit. It occupies today the entirei second floor of a 
beautiful marble structure known as the Hall of History. When 
the department was organized the public archives of North Caro- 
lina were in a state of hopeless confusion, most of them packed 
away indiscriminately in boxes and consigned to plunder- rooms, 
as if they were so much worthless junk. Within six years after 
its establishment 8,788 manuscripts had been deposited with the 
Commission (Report of 1910) ; the archives had been systemati- 
cally and orderly arranged on roller shelves; a museum had been 
organized, and a number of volumes published. The state of 
Wisconsin, a comparatively young state, situated on the Canadian 
border line, more than a thousand miiles distant, leads all the 
states perhaps in its zeal for the preservation of American his- 
tory; and today in the possession of this remote northera state 
there are Georgia books, documents and manuscripts which can- 
not be duplicated in Georgia, and to procure copies of which we 
must pay a stipulated fee. Let us blush to record this fact. 

3. Georgia is not a state without a history to record, but a 
state whose annals are glorious with achievements, reaching back 
to the days of Oglethorpe. She needs to be set right before 
the world. If her virtues were as well advertised as her occasional 
resorts to lyncli-law, she would stiind in need of a champion no- 
where in Christendom. 



44 First Annual Session 

4. Georgia is not a state witliout means. She is rich. But 
Georgia will be the poorest of states and in the years to come will 
be justly an object of contempt among her sister states if, turn- 
ing a doaf ear to the claims of her glorious past, she prefers to 
listen to the seductive song of a golden siren. 

5. Another reason for, establishing a Department of Archives 
is foilnd in the deficiencies of our state history as heretofore 
written. From 1800 to 1861 there exists a yawning gap which is 
yet to be filled by the historian ; while from 1868 down to the 
present time another great hiatus confronts us. If it be im- 
portant to compile the records for those periods which have al- 
ready been well-covered by the historian, viz., the Colonial, the 
Revolutionary and the Confederate, how transcendentiy import- 
ant it is to compile the records for those periods which have not 
been covered by any history today in existence. Except in a de- 
tached way the history of our state has never been written and 
unless our records are properly preserved it can never be written. 

6. We keep perfect records for two classes of our people — the 
poor unfortunate in our insane asylum and the vicious inmates 
of our penitentiary. There is not a convicted criminal or a de- 
mented child of Georgia whose record is not well kept. But 
Avhen it comes to those who have molded our statutes and fought 
our battles and given character to our state and made Georgia 
illustrious among the comsmonwealths of this Union, we say to 
them: "Let the dead past bury its dead." We are ready to ap- 
propriate thousands of dollars to extirpate the boll weevil or the 
hog cholera — to safe-guard our cotton patches and our pig-pens. 
Shall we do less for those who have advanced the state in honor, 
who have made us what we are and who, many of them without 
head-stones, are today sleeping in our silent hills? 

7. As stated above, the nucleus for such a department exists 
already in the Compiler's office. It will be easy to build upon 
this foundation. There will be little or no additional cost to the 
state, while a vast amount of work can be accomplished for which 
no provision is tnade at present. I am not solicitous for an office. 
It is at a loss to personal interests that I am holding this position. 
But I love Georiria's bistory, and if I can rescue from oblivion one 
single name which but for mo might be forgotten — if I can pluck 
it from the dust and lift it shining to the firmament — 1 shall be 
well repaid. 



Georgia Historical Association 45 

Constitution of the Georgia Historical Association 
Article 1. 

The name of this society shall be The Georgia Historical Associa- 
tion. 

Article II. 

The object of the Association shall be to promote the study of 
Georgia history. 

Article III. 

The Association shall consist of two classes of members, to-wit: 
regular members, who shall pay an annual fee of two dollars 
($2.00); and sustaining members, who shall pay an annual fee 
of five dollars ($5.00). 

Article IV. 

The officers shall be a president, a vice-president, a secretary- 
treasurer, and an executive council consisting of the foregoing of- 
ficers and two other members elected by the Association. Ex-presi- 
dents shall also be members of the executive council. These officers 
shall be elected by ballot at eadh regular annual meeting of the 
Association. 

Article V. 

The Executive Council shall have charge of the general interests 
of the Association, including the election of members, the calling 
of meetings, the preparation of a programme for the meetings, the 
determination of what papers and documents shall be published, and 
the appointment of a managing editor for any publications of the 
Association. 

Article VI. 

The Association shall meet annually on the first Saturday of April 
in the City of Atlanta; but the Executive Council is empov/ered to 
change the time and place of meeting. Special meetings may be 
called by the Executive Council. Notice in writing and copy of the 
programme shall be sent by the secretary-treasurer to every mem- 
ber not less than ten days before the date of the meeting. Ten mem- 
bers shall constitute a quorum. 

Article Mil. 

This constitution may be amended at any annual meeting, notice 
of such amendments having been given at the previous meeting, or 
the proposed amendment having received the approval of the Ex- 
ecutive Council. 



46 First Annu.u. Session 

Notes 

It is a matter for regret that no provision was made to have 
registered the names of those who attended the organization 
meeting of the Association. About fifty members were present. 
The following list was prepared from memory by ]^Ir. Knight. 
Mr. Claud Bond, Toccoa; Mr. P. F. Brock, Macon; Prof. R. P. 
Brooks, Athens; ^Ir. Elijah A. Bro^n, Atlanta; Miss Sallie E. 
Brown, Atlanta ; Mrs. ^Y. C. Clark, Covington ; Mrs. M. B. Cobb, 
Atlanta; ]\Irs. E. L. Connally, Atlanta; Mr. Thomas W. Con- 
nally, Atlanta ; Miss Carrie L. Dailey, Atlanta ; Prof. Jos. T. Der- 
ry, Atlanta; Mrs. Sheppard W. Foster, Vice-President General, 
D. A. R., Atlanta ; Mr. 0. D. Gorman, Atlanta; Mrs. R. H. Hard- 
away, Ne\Mian; Governor N. E. Harris, Atlanta; Prof. H. S. Har- 
vard, Atlanta; Dr. Lymtin Hood, President Atlanta Theological 
Seminary ; Prof. T H. Jack, Oxford ; Mr. Lucian L. Knight, At- 
lanta ; Miss Louise 0. Love, Atlanta ; Prof. J. R. McCain, Deca- 
tur; Mrs. H. H. McCall, State Regent, D. A. R., Atlanta; Dr. 
P. H. Mell, Atlanta ; President K. G. Matheson, Atlanta ; Mr. A. 
C. Newell, Atlanta ; Dr. E. D. Newton, Athens ; Mr. Oscar Park- 
er, Fairburn; Prof. W. 0. Payne, Athens; Prof. C. E. Phillips, 
Atlanta; Miss Helen M. Prescott, Atlanta; Miss Mildred Ruther- 
ford, former Historian General of the U. D. C, Athens; Hon. 
H. M. Stanley, Atlanta; Mrs. E. A .Thomas, Atlanta; Hon. Ham- 
ilton Yancey, Rome. 



In the discussion of the papers a number of members partici- 
pated, all expressing their gratification at the successful inaugu- 
ration of the new venture. 

Professor Derry took exception to the statement in one of the 
papers reflecting on the paucity and quality of the output of 
historical literature in Georgia. He thought much sound histors^ 
had been written, but that the people were shamefully negligent 
in reading it ; and their ignorance of state history was due rather 
to that cause than to the lack of adequate treatment. 

Profes.sor ]\IcCain vouched for the accuracy of the statements 
in Mrs. Co])b's papei-s about the condition of the archives. He 
had endeavored to make use of the archives in the preparation 
of his doctoral tliesis and had encountered great difficulty from 
the absence of arrangement and classification. He thought the 



Georgia Historical Association " 47 

most important thing the Association could do would be to put 
on foot a movement to better these conditions. 

. Mrs. H. H. McCall, State Regent of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution, and Mrs. Sheppard W. Foster, Vice-Pres- 
ident General, pledged the support of the Daughters to the new 
organization. 

Miss Mildred Rutherford, former Historian General of the 
United Daughtei-s of the Confederacy, after stating that the 
organization of which she was the informal representative would 
stand behind the Association, enlivened the meeting by a few 
words in her attractive way about the greatness of Georgia and 
the duty we owe our people to preserve our historical records. 



Letters or telegrams of congratulation were read from the fol- 
lowing absent members: Bishop Warren A. Candler, Mr. Wm. 
H. Cobb, Elkins, W. Va. ; Mr. Folks Huxford, Homerville ; :\Iiss 
Kate C. Pitts, Toccoa; ]Mrs. Hallie A. Rounsaville, Rome; and 
Mrs. J. L. Walker, W^aycross. 



The luncheon at the Piedmont was a most agreeable occasion, 
and it is expected to make this event a fixture at the annual meet- 
ings. Those who attended were Mr. Claude Bond, ^h\ P. F. 
Brock, Mrs. R. P. Brooks, Forsyth ; Prof. R. P. Brooks, Mis.s Sal- 
lie Brown, Mrs. W. C. Clark, Mrs. M. B. Cobb, Mrs. E. L. Con- 
nally, Mr. T. W. Connally, Prof. J. T. Derry, Mrs. R. H. Harda- 
way. Prof. T. H. Jack, Mr, L. L. Knight, Dr. P. H. Mell, Mrs. C. 
T. Parker, Miss Helen M. Prescott, Prof. C. E. Phillips, Miss 
Mildred Rutherford, and Hon. Hamilton Yancey. 

The United States having only a few days before declared war 
on Germany, it was felt to be fitting that the new organization 
should send to the President the following telegram, signed by 
Mr. ICnight: 

**The Georgia Historical Association, organized today with 
500 members, pledges to the President of the United States its 
loyal support of his administration and its unswerving devotion 
to the flag:.'' 



Preliminary steps toward the incorporation of the Association 
have been taken. ^lessrs. 0. E. and i\I. C. Horton, of Atlanta, 



48 First Annual Session 

members of the Association, prepared the charter without charge 
for their professional s^ervices and the application is now being 
advertised in an Atlanta paper in accordance with the law. 



At the end of the volume the list of members is printed both in 
alphalx'tical arrangement and by counties. While the member- 
ship is well scattered over the state, as can be seen from the map 
on page 84, many counties are unrepresented, and others con- 
tribute only one or two members. Members are urged to help the 
officers of the Association in their effort to enlarge the member- 
ship. The Secretary will be glad to send extra copies of the Pro- 
ceedings to any member who desires to use them to interest others 
in the work of the organization. 



Georgia Historical Association 49 

Check List of the Georgia Archival Material in Certain Of- 
fices of the Cdpitol 

Prepared by Mrs. Maud Barker Cobb. 

Note: Arrangement generally chronological. Limited time pre- 
vented the page-by-page examination which would liave been neces- 
sary in many istances to determine the exact dates. 

DOCUMENTS listed are filed in the following Departments: 
ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 
COMPTROLLER-GENERAL. 
EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 
SECRETARY OF STATE. 
WESTERN AND ATLANTIC RAILROAD COMMISSION. 

ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE. 

Correspondence, 1776 — date. 

Note: In metal vertical files, arranged chronologically. 
2 additional files for 1864, marked: Militia enrollment. 
Journals and Official Letters of the Adjutant-General's office, com- 
mencing 7th day of December, 1792 — May 1, 1794. 2v. 
Note: On file in Secretary of State's ofl[ice. 
Military commissions, Jan. 15, 1798 — Dec. 19, 1860. 26v. 
Military officers (and organizations). Roster, Nov. 13, 1817 — Nov. 

4, 1829. 
Military officers (and organizations). Roster, Nov. 5, 1829 — ^Nov. 

29, 1841. 
Military executive orders, Nov. 28, 1835 — Aug. 26, 1840. 
Company rolls — Confederate States of America, 1861-65. 

Note: These are in metal vertical files. Copies from rolls in 
War Dept., Washington, D. C. 
Salt books. 

Salt accounts current — State of Georgia on account of salt, 
1862-1865. 
Note: The above volume on file in Secretary of State's office. 
Abstract of salt received and issued, Jan. 14, 1863 — Sept. 29, 

1864. 
Abstract of salt received and issued, Aug. 1, 1862 — June, 1865. 
Purchases and issues for subsistence to troops of state line, 1863-65. 
Special order books, 1864 — date. 30 v. 
Letter books, 1SG2 — date. 125 v. 

Military arms, accoutrements, and ammunition — Account, 1880- 
1892. 



50 First Annual Session 

Auditor's office. 1756 to 1772. 

Note: On file in Secretary of State's office. 
Auditor's journal, 1782-1794. 

Note: Expenditures of the state to cover food, salaries, etc., ^ • 

for General Anthony Wayne's army during the seige of 
Savannah. On file in Capt. W. H. Harrison's office. • 

COMPTROLLER-GENERAL'S OFFICE. 

Tax Digests, 1792 — date. 

Note: These comprise thousands of volumes. They have been * 

carefully arranged by year on shelves in a basement storage 
room of the Comptroller-General's Department. The earlier 
Digests, some on large sheets, some in unbound volumes, are 
in need of binding. 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 
Letter books. 1786-1901. 160v. (approximately). 

Note: The two earliest ones seen cover the periods Oct. 20, 
1786 — Apr. 22, 1789, and March 12, 1802 — Nov. 2, 1809. 
respectively. Those of the Civil War period are in a very 
bad condition, with some of tlie covers gone, and apparently 
some letters. There are many gaps in this file. 
Executive minutes, Sept. 23, 1796 — date. 54v. t 

Note: File not complete. | 

Executive minutes — Index. 2 9 v. - ; 

Invoices, warrants, etc. 5v. 

County officers. 24v. * 

Notary Public. 13v. 
Justice of the Peace. 15 v. 

SECRETARY OF STATE'S OFFICE. 
Itand Records. 



SURVEYS 



A 1783-1785. 

B 1783. 

C 1750-1773. 

D 

E 1784-1785. 

F 

1783. 
H 

H 1768-1775. 

I 1784-1786. 

K 1784-1788. 

L 

M 1776-1829. 

N 



Georgia Historicax. Association 



51 



o 


1785-1792. 




p 






Q 






R 






S 


Headrights, 


1787. 


T 


HeadrigMs, 


1793-4 



IT Headriglits. 

W Headrights, 1794. 

X Headrights, 1794. 

Y Headrights, 1794. 

Z Headrights, 1794. 

AA Headrights, 1793-4. 

BB Headrights. 

CC Headrights, 1790-99. 

DD Headrights. 

FF Wilkinson Co. Dist. 1-5, 1804-1805. 

GG Wayne Co. Dist. 1-3. 

II Headrights, 1791-1806. 

KK Wilkinson Co. Dist. 27, 13, 23, 18. 

LL Wilkinson Co. Dist. 9, 16, 19. 

MM Wilkinson Co. Dist. 15, 20, 21. 

OO Wilkinson Co. Dist. 17, 25, 28, 10. 

QQ Wilkinson Co. Dist. 12, 14, 26, 

SS Wilkinson Co. Dist. 22, 7, 6. 

TT Wilkinson Co. Dist. 8, 11, 28. 

UU Wilkinson Co. Dist. 6. 24. 

W Headrights, 1800-1808. 

WW Headrights, 1811-14. 

XX Headrights, 1814-1818. 

ZZ Headrights, 1810-22. 



AAA 
EBB 
CCC 
DDD 

EEE 
FFF 
GGG 



Early Co. Dist. 
Early Co. Dist. 
Early Co. 
Early Co. 
Early Co. 
Early Co. 
Irwin Co. 



1-5. 
5-9. 
Dist. 9-13. 



Dist 13-17. 
Dist. 17-21. 

21-28. 

1-6, 1819-20. 



Dist. 
Dist. 



52 



First Annual Session 



Dist. 



HHH Irwin Co. Dist. 6-10, 1819-21. 
Ill Irwin Co. Dist. 10-14. 

JJJ Irwin Co. Dist. 14-16, 1819-20; Appling Co. 
1-3, 1819-21. 
KKK Appling Co. Dist. 4-7, 1819-20. 
LLL Appling Co. Dist. 7-9; Walton Co. Dist. 1-4. 
MMM Walton Co. Dist. 4; Hall Co. Dist. 8-9; Gwinnett 

Co. Dist. 5-7. 
NNN Hall Co. Dist. 10-12; 
000 Habersham Co. Dist. 

' Dist. 1-3. 
PPP Rabun Co. Dist. 3-5; 
QQQ Dooly Co. Dist. 5-10. 
RRR Dooly Co. Dist. 10-14. 

SS3 Dooly Co. Dist. 14-16; Houston Co. Dist. 1-2. 
TTT Houston Co. Dist. 2-7. 
UUU Houston Co. 7-12. 

VVV Houston Co. Dist. 12-16; Monroe Co. Dist. 1. 
WWW Monroe Co. Dist. 1-6. 
XXX Monroe Co. Dist. 6-11, 1821. 
YYY Monroe Co. Dist. 11-15. 

ZZZ Monroe Co. Dist. Last part Dist. 15; Henry Co. 
Dist. 1-5. 



Habersham Co. Dist. 1-6. 
6, 10, 11, 12, 13; Rabun Co. 

Dooly Co. Dist. 1-5. 



AAAA Henry Co. Dist. 5-9. 

BBBB Henry Co. Dist. 9-14. 

CCCC Henry Co. Dist. 14-18. 

DDDD Henry Co. Dist. 18. 

EEEE Islands and Reserves. 1828-29, 

GGGG Troup Co. Dist. 1-5. 



nil Troup Co. Dist. 12; Coweta Co. Dist. 1-5. 

JJJJ Troup Co. Dist. 6-11; Coweta Co., part of 5th Dist. 

KKKK Coweta Co. Dist. 6-9; Muscogee Co. Dist. 1-5. 

LLLL Muscogee Co. Dist. 5-13, 1826. 

MMMM Muscogee Co. Dist. 13-19, 1826-7. 

NNNN Muscogee Co. Dist. 20-24, 1826-7; Carroll Co. Dist. 

1-2, 1826-7. 

0000 Carroll Co. Dist. 2-9. 

PPPP Carroll Co. Dist. 9-16 

QQQQ Lee Co. Dist. 2-8. 

RRRR Lee Co. Dist. 8-14. 

SSSS Lee Co. Dist. 14-21. 

TTTT Leo Co. Dist. 21-2 7. 

UUUU Lee Co. Dist. 27-32. 

WW Lee Co. Dist. 33. 



Lee Co. Dist. 1-2. 



Georgia Historical Association 



53 



WWWW Headrights, 1823-33. 
XXXX Headrights, 1832. 

i .? 
ZZ^Z Headrights, 1832. 

' AB Headrights, (Act 1835), 1835-7. 

AC Headrights, 1835-57. 

AD Headrights, 1836-40. 

AD Headrights, 1836-41. 

AE Headrights, 1834-47. 

AF Headrights, 1847-50. 

AG Headrights. 

AG Headrights, 1846-52. 

AH Headrights, 1848-57. 

AJ Headrights, 1883-1911. 

Washington, Montgomery, Mcintosh Co., 1794. 4 t. 

J Appling Co. Dist. 12-13, 1821. 
Appling Co. Dist. 12-23. 
Appling Co. Dist. 10-11, 1850. 

Appling Co. Reverted lots. 1819-1820. 
Irwin Co. Reverted lots. 1819. 



GRANTS 



LAND RECORDS 



B 1758-60. 

D 1759-64. 

E 1764-66. 

F 1766-68. 

G 1768-70. 

I 1771-74. 



Carolina Grants, 1771-74. 
Town lots, Register. 1772-75. 
1774-75. 

Schedule of land grants. 1755 to 1769. 

Schedule of land grants, 1767-71. (Dilapidated, 

p. 67 missing). 
Grants, 1770-74. 



54 



First Annual Session 



DDD 


1783-84 




EEE 


1784. 




FFP 


1784-5. 




GGG 


1785 




HHH 


1785-6. 




III 


1785-6. 




KKK 


1786. 




LLL 


1786-7. 




MMM 


1787. 




NNN 


1787. 




NNN 


1787-8, Records Register 


of grants 


000 


1787-8. 




ppp 


1788. 




ppp 


1787-8, Records. 




QQQ 


1788-9. 




RRR 


1789. 




SSS 


1789. 




TTT 


1790. 




UUU 


1790-91. 




VVV 


1791-2. 




WWW 


1792. 




XXX 


1792-3. 


J - 


YYY 


1793. 




ZZZ 


1793. 




AAAA 


1793. 




BBBB 


1793-4. 




CCCC 


1793-4. 




DDDD 


1794. 




EEEE 


1794. 




FFFP 


1794. 




GGGG 


1794. 




HHHH 


1794. 




nil 


1794-5. 




KKKK 


1794-5. 




LLLL 


1794-5. 




MM MM 


1794-5. 




NNNN 


1795. 




OOGO 


1795. 




PPPP 


1795. 




QQQQ 


1795. 




RRRR 


1795. 




ssss 


1795. 




TTTT 


1795. 




UUUU 


1795. 





Georgia Historical Association 



55 



WW 1795. 

WWWW 1796. 

XXXX 1795. 

YYYY 1796. 

ZZZZ 1776-7. 

AAAAA 1797-9. 

BBBBB 1799. 

CCCCC 1799-1800. 

DDDDD 1800-1802. 

EEEEE 1802-5. 

F 5 Headrights, 1805-6. 

G 5 Headrights, 1805-8. 

H 5 Headrights, 1809-12. 

I 5 Headrights, 1813-14. 



K 


5 


Headrights, 


1814-16 


L 


5 


Headrights, 


1816-19 


L 


5 


Headrights, 


1816-19 


M 


5 


Headrights, 


1818-20 


N 


5 


Headrights, 


1820-23 





5 


Headrights, 


1820-23 


P 


5 


Headrights, 


1823-28 


Q 


5 


Headrights, 


1828-33 


R 


5 


Headrights, 


1833. 


R 


5 


Headrights, 


1836-7. 


R 


5 


Headrights, 


1836-7. 


R 


5 


Headrights, 


1836-7. 


S 


5 


Headrights, 


1837-8. 


T 


5 


Headrights, 


1838-9. 


U 


5 


Headrights, 


1839-43. 


V 


5 


Headrights, 


1843-7. 



X 5 Headrights, 1850. 
Y 5 Headrights, 1852-3. 
Z 5 Headrights, 1856-8. 

Headrights, 1813-35. 

Headrights, 1823-38. 

Headrights. 1836-52. 

Headrights, 1838-56. 

Headrights, 1835-61. 

Unbound Headright and Bounty land papers. 18 
bundles. 

Appling Co. (Act 1818 & 1819) Dist. 1-9. 8 v. & 
supp. 



56 First Annual Session 



Appling Co. (Act 1828) Dist. 12-13. 2 v. 
Appling, Irwin, Early, Walton, Hall, Gwinnett, 

Habersham, Rabun. 1821-59. 
Baldwin, Wilkinson Co., 180 8. 

Carroll Co. (Act 1825 & 1826). Dist. 1-16. 7v. 
Coweta Co. (Act 1825 & 1826). Dist. 1-9. 4v. 
Dooly Co. (Act 1821) Dist. 1-16. 8v. 
Dooly, Houston, Monroe, Henry, Fayette Co. 

1821-46. 
Early Co. (Act 1818 & 1819). Dist. 1-28. 14v & 

Supp. A. & B. 
Fayette Co. (Act 1821). Dist. 6, 7, 9, 14. 2v. 
Fayette, Henry, Monroe Co. 1821. 
Gwinnett Co. (Act 1818 & 1819). Dist. 5, 6, 7, 2v. 
Habersham Co. (Act 1818 & 1819). Dist. 1-6, 10- 

13. 3 V. 
Hall Co. (Act 1818 & 1819). Dist. 8-12. 
Henry Co. (Act 1821). Dist. 1-18. 9 v. & supp. 
Houston Co. (Act 1821). Dist. 1-16. 8 v. & supp. 
Houston Co. 1821. 
Irwin Co. (Act 1818 & 1819). Dist. 1-16. 11 v. & 

supp. 
Lee Co. (Act. 1825 & 1826). Dist. 1-33. 16 v. 
Lee, Muscogee, Troup, Coweta, Carroll Co. (Ac 

1825 & 26). 2 V. 
Lee, Muscogee, Troup, Cowet, Carroll Co. 1827. 
Monroe Co. (Act 1821). Dist. 1-16. 8 v. & supp. 
Muscogee Co. (Act 1825). Dist. 1-24. 12 v. 
Muscogee. 1827. 

Rabun Co. (Act 1818 & 1819). Dist. 1-5. 1 v. 
Rabun Co. (Act 1818 & 1819). 1832. B. 
Troup Co. (Act 1825 & 1826). Dist. 1-2. 6 v. 
Troup Co. 1827. 

Walton Co. (Act 1818 & 1819). Dist. 1-4. 2 v. 
Walton, Gwinnett, Hall, Habersham, Rabun Co. 

(Act 1818 & 1819). 
Ware Co. (Act 1852). Dist. 10, 11. 1853-4. 
Wayne Co. Dist. 1-3. 1830-39. 3 v. 
Wayne Co. (Act 1814). Dist. 1-3. 1815-1854. 
Wilkinson Co. Dist. 01-28. 16 v. 1805-38. 
Wilkinson, Baldwin Co. (Act 1814). 2 v. A. 1815- 

18; B. 18-70. 

Hall, Gwinnett, Walton, Rabun, Habersham, Cow- 
eta, Troup, Carroll, Muscogee Co. Index to 
grants. 



Georgia Historical Association 57 

CHEROKEE LAND LOTTERY. 
SURVEYS. 

Tables by county, district, and section. 
Surveyor's plats. 46 v. 

Surveyor's plats (unbound) 178 pigeon holes. 
Surveyor's note-books, field-books, and indexes. 
224 V. 

GRANTS. 

Land lottery. 27 v. 

Land lots in Cherokee Co. (by name). Oc. 1832- 

Sc. 1838. 
Lottery, June 1832. 2d sec, Dist. 22, 83, 24. 
Index to grants, sections 2, 3, 4. 
Fraudulent lots, Ap. 24, 1837-No. 6, 1847. 
Reverted lots. 3 v. 
Relinquished lots, 1834-5. 

CHEROKEE GOLD LOTTERY. 
GRANTS. 

Lottery. 58 v. 
Lottery 1832. 

Lottery (by name) Oc. 1832-Oc. 1836. 
Lottery (by name) 1836-Ap. 1854. 
H Lottery 1854-59. 
Lottery 1820-37. 
Reverted gold lots. 7 v. 
Reverted gold lots in sec. 5 & 6. 4 v. 

GRANTS — MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 

Creek lottery (Act 1803) List of names, persons entitled to 

draw lots. 4 v. 
Lottery 182 0. Money paid on the plats of fortunate drawers. 

Sept. 1820-Dec. 1845. 
Lottery 1827, and reverted lots Act 1843. 
A Grants. May 20, 1827-March 23, 1883. 

Butts County reserve. 1835-1860. 
A-C Grants, 1885-93. 
A-D Grants, 1894-1912. 

FRAUDULENT AND REVERTED LOTS. 
Fractions. (Act 1820). 1820-50. 15 v. 
Reverted lots. 1828-34. 
Fraudulent lots. 1829-53. 
Fraudulent reverted lots. ^1846-50. 
Fractions. 1829-4S. 
Fractions. 1854-62. 



58 



First Annual Session 



REVERTED LOTS. 

Appling, 1841. 4 v. (A, B, C, D.) 

Dooly (Reverted under survey of 1821). 

Dooly, Muscogee, etc. (Act 1843). 2 v. (A, B.) 

Early (Act 1841). 4 v. (A, B, C, D.) 

Early. 

Habersham, Hall, Rabun, etc. (Act 1841). (D). 

Erwin (Act 1840). 

Erwin (Act 1841). 3 v. (A, B, C.) 

Lee, Muscogee, etc. (Act 1843). 

Wilkinson (Act 1814). 

LAND OFFICE. 

Records, Sept. 30, 1784-Dec. 9, 1792. 11 parts (continunu? 
paging). (Very dilapidated) pp. 1-4, 117, 118 missing. 

Headright lands of 1000 A. tracts claimed in Bryan, Bulloch, 
Burke; etc., and in parishes. 

List of persons who have lost property by the Creek Indians 
in Lee County, 1828-9. 

U3 Entry of claims, 1753-1757. 

SALES. 

G Fractions. Fraudulent drawings, 1824-48. 

Fees on grants for fractions sold. (Act 1827). 1829-54 2 v. 

Fraction book Central Bank, Dec. 1828-June, 1834. 

Fractional sales, 1828-29. 

Account of sale of forfeited property Indian Spring. 1831. 

Forfeited lands (Act 1833). 1847-56. 

Proceedings of commissioners authorized to sell frac- 
tional parts of lands in Washington, Baldwin, and 
Wayne Counties, Dec. 1805-Oct. 1806. 

Journal and minutes of fractional sales in counties of 
Wilkinson and Baldwin. 1807-8. 

Reverted lots, (Act 1843). Contains also Cherokee re- 
verted orphan lots (Act 1853). 1854-59. 

TOWN RECORDS. 



COLUMBUS. 

Minutes of the board of Commissioners. 
Grants. (Act 1827). 2 v. 



1828. 



Georgia Historical Association 59 

HAWKINSVILLE. 

Advertised sale forfeited lands. 1828. 

MACON. 

Proceedings of the commissioners for selling the unsold 
lots in the town of Macon, and the public lands on 
the Ocmulgee River adjoining said town, Jan, 1828. 
Town lot grants, 1824-1851. 
B Lot grants, 1829-1849. 

Reserve grants, 1829-1850. 
H Macon lots, 1829-1859. 

RECORDS OF PROPERTY, WILLS AND ADMINISTRATION. 

A Record of wills, 1754-1770. (Very badly worn). 

B Record of wills, 1771 to 1779. 

D Letters testamentary and warrants of appraisement, 1775 
to 1775. 

F Inventory of appraisement, 1755 to 1770. (Very dilap- 
idated). 
FF Inventory of appraisement, 1776 and 1777. 

D Inventory of appraisement, 1777 and 1778. 

Z Administration, 1771 and 1775. 

G Administration, 1777 and 1778. 

Letters of Guardianship, 1757-1776. 

I Bonds, bills of sale, deeds of gift, and powers of attorney, 
1755 to 1762. 

O Bills of sale and deeds of gift, 1761 to 1765. 

R Bonds, bills of sale, deeds of gift, and powers of attorney, 
1765 to 1772. 

Y Bills of sale and deeds of gift, 1772 to 1775. 

[Bonds, bills of sale, deeds of gift, and powers of attor- 
ney, 1780-1781]. 
Da Bonds, bills of sale and deds of gift, 1792 to 1804. 
C3 Bills of sale and deeds of gift, 1783 to 1792. 
Ya Marks and brands, 1755-1806. 

CONVEYANCES. 

O 1744 to 1761. v. 1. 
C 1761 to 1766. V. 2. 
S 1766 to 1769. 
1769. 

V 1769 to 1771. 

X 1771 to 1772. V. 1. 

X 1772 to 1774. v. 2. 

CC 1774 to 1775. v. 1. 

CC 1775 to 1784. v. 2. 



60 



First Annual Session 



DD 1775 to 1798. 
1779 to 1880. 



MORTGAGES. 



E 
G 
Q 
W 
EE 



1755 to 1783. 
1762 to 1765. 
1765 to 1770. 
1770 to 1785. 
1776 to 1805. 



EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 

Transactions of the Trustees of Georgia. Vol. 2d. 

Transactions of the Trustees of Georgia from 9th June, 1741, 
to the 9th June, 1742. (Continued to May 24, 1744). 
Note: The above two volumes, which are original man- 
uscript records of the trustees of Georgia, have been 
printed as volume five of the Colonial Records of Geor- 
gia. 

The General Account of all monies and effects received and 
expended by the Trustees for establishing the Colony of 

Georgia in America. . . . (June 9, 1732 to June 9, 1752). 
Note: Reprinted as volume three of the Colonial Rec- 
ords of Georgia. 

PROCLAI\LATIONS. 



H 1754 to 1882. 
HH 1782 to 1805. 
1823-53. v. 2. 
Proclamations. 
1860. 



Election of Brigadier-Generals. 1854- 



LETTERS. 



(Nov. 22), 1821- (Oct 30), 1829. 
Nov. 10, 1829-June 29, 1831. 



COMMISSIONS. 



County Boards Roads and Revenue, 1773-77, 79, 81, 82. 
Tax Receivers & Collectors, 1812-1824. 
Tax Receivers & Collectors, 1824-34. 



D (In accordance with Act Dec. 18 29). 
Ordinaries, 1852- (Jan 29, 1866). 



Georgia Historical Association 61 

Judges Superior Courts, (1853-1867). 
Judges Superior Courts, Vacancies. (1853-1867). 
County officers. 1854-59. 
City court judges, etc. (1856). 
County judges and solicitors. 1866. 
Solicitors. 1877. 

Registration Oath Book, Senatorial Dist. 32, White, Daw- 
son, Lumpkin Counties. 1867. 



I MISCELLANEOUS, 



Poor School Fund. (1825-1841). 

Fiat Book. (1771-1775). 

State Lunatic Asylum, Board of Trustees Report. 1841. 

(Ypvy dilapidated). 
Receipt Book for County Maps. 1"870-1894. 

LEGISLATIVE DOCUMENTS. 

Journal of the Proceedings and Minutes of the GoYernor 
and Council of His Majesty's Province of Georgia, 
Oct. 30, 1754-March 6, 1759. 
Note: Published as volume seven of the Colonial Rec- 
ords of Georgia. 

Minutes of the Executive Council, 1778-1783. 

Minutes of the Executive Council, 1783-1785. 

Minutes of the Executive Council, Jan. 8, 1789-May 4, 
1789. ' 

Minutes of the Executive Council, Aug. 4, 1789-Nov. 11, 
1789. 

Journal of the Executive Council, 1785. 
Note: Very dilapidated. 

Report to the House of the House Committee on Indian 
affairs, Aug. 3, 1786. 

Treaties, 1786-1795. 

Resolutions, 1839-1847. 

Constitution, 186 5. 

Constitution, 1877. 

Acts of the General Assembly of Georgia, 1764-1778. 

Acts of the General Assembly of Georgia, 1778-1786. 

Acts of the General Assembly of Georgia, 1786-1789. 

Acts of the General Assembly of Georgia, 1789-1796. 

Acts of the General xVssembly of Georgia, 1796-1798. 

Acts of the General Assembly of Georgia, 1799-1804. 

Acts of the General Assembly of Georgia, 1804-1806. 

Acts of the General Assembly of Georgia, 1807-1808. 



62 First Annual Session 

Acts of the General Assembly of Georgia, 1809-1810. 
Acts of the General Assembly of Georgia, 1811-1813. 
Acts of the General Assembly of Georgia. 1814-1818. 
Acts of the General Assembly of Georgia. 1819. 

Note: These are transcriptions in large volumes of the 

Acts for the years listed. 

Acts of the General Assmbly, 1810-1819. 

Note: Manuscript of Lamar's Digest of Georgia Laws. 

Index to Laws of Georgia, 1761-1814. 

Georgia Laws, 1800-date. 

Note: Bound volumes of engrossed Acts. Several missing 
numbers. 

Journal of the Senate, 1790/91-date. 
Note: Several missing numbers. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, 1781-date. 
Note: Several missing numbers. 

Dawson-Index to Journals of the House, 1781-1820. 



WESTERN AND ATLANTIC RAILROAD COMMISSION. 

Letters (Executive Department) from Oct. 2, 18 2 5- Jan. 14, 
1829. 
Note: The above letters are on internal improvements. 
Beginning on p. 15 of the volume are letters concerning 
the W. & A. Railroad and reports and estimates of the en- 
gineer and commissioners covering the period of Dec. 28, 
1836-Jan. 14. 1839. 

Deeds. Approximately 350 original deeds, including right of 
way, terminals, depot grounds, and section lots, of the 
W. & A. R. R. 

Deeds to right of way W. & A. R. R. Prepared by W. L. 
Goldsmith, June 18, 1873. 
Note: Manuscript copy of original deeds. In 1 v. 

Tennessee (Act of Jan. 21, 1838). Certified copy of Act of 
the Legislature of Tennessee giving Georgia the right to 
build the W. & A. R. R. Into Tennessee. 



Georgia Historical Association 63 

Miscellaneous papers, 1839. (1 bundle). 

Miscellaneous papers, 1846. (1 bundle). 

Miscellaneous papers, 1847. (1 bundle). 

Miscellaneous papers, 1866. (1 bundle). 

TraflBc operations of W. & A. R .R. during the time of its op- 
eration by the State, through Dec. 27, 1870. Approxi- 
mately 1500 V. 

Note: Also a miscellaneous lot of letters and vouchers in 

regard to the above operations. 3 boxes. 

Commission minutes, 1888. 

Maps of the official survey of the Weestern & Atlantic R. R. 
Sept. 16, 1896. Prepared by D. L. Wardroper, Engineer. 
Note: Made under an act of Dect. 16, 1895. There are 
also on file in the office of the Commission a map, in sec- 
tions, of the entire right of way, made by the 1915 Com- 
mission, and some ninety detailed maps made by the les- 



Condition report and inventory of Western & Atlantic Rail- 
road and all its properties, as of April, 1917. 



64 First Annual Session 

Members of the Association, Alphabetically Arranged 

Adams, B. T Macon 

Adams, Judge J. S Dublin 

Adams, Judge S. B Savannah 

Adamson, Hon. Robert _' Fire Comm., New York, N. Y. 

Adamson, Hon. W. C . CarroUton 

Adkins, T. A Vienna 

Alexander, H. A. Atlanta 

Allen, Mrs. H. D Milledgeville 

Alston, R. C Atlanta 

Andrews, Mrs. Eliza Frances Rome 

Andrews, Hon. Walter P Atlanta 

Arkwright, P. S Atlanta 

Atwater, Capt. James R Tbomaston 

Austin, James V7 Atlanta 

Avary, R. L Atlanta 

Bahnsen, Peter F . Americus 

Bailey, W. A Toccoa 

Baker, Mrs. T, A , Valdosta 

Banks, W. W Atlanta 

Barker, Miss Tommie Dora Carnegie Library, Atlanta 

Barnett, E. A Washington 

Barnett, J. W Athens 

Barrett, Wm. H Augusta 

Barrett, Hon. C. S Union City 

Barrow, Chancellor D. C Athens 

Bass, Miss Addie - Clarkesville 

Battey, Dr. W. W., Jr Augusta 

Beeson, Mrs. J. L Milledgeville 

Bell, Judge George L Atlanta 

Bell, R. C Cairo 

Bell, Hon. Thos. M Gainesville 

Bennett, Hon. Claude N Southern Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Bennett, Hon. John W Waycross 

Bennet, Sam S Albany 

Benton, Mrs. W. N 454 Green St., Augusta 

Bernd, Miss Florence 197 Laurel Ave., Macon 

Berry, E. J Waycross 

Bickers, D. G Athens 

Black, Mrs. Nellie Peters Atlanta 

Blackshear, :Mrs. E. J Dublin 

Blassingame, Hon. Josiah Jersey 

Blount, Hon. W. A Pensacola, Fla. 

Bohler, Chas. S Box 187, Augusta 

Boland, Dr. F. K Atlanta 

Bond, Claude Toccoa 

Booth, Hinton Statesboro 



Georgia Historical Association 65 

Boston, John H Marietta 

Boylston, Albert Atlanta 

Bradley, A. S - Swainsboro 

Bradwell, J. D Athens 

Bradwell, J. S - Bainbrjdge 

Brand, L. M . Lawrenceville 

Branham, Dr. A. I 2 N. Forsyth St.. Atlanta 

Brantley, Hon. W. G Munsey Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Brittain, Hon. M. L Atlanta 

Brock, P. F - Macon 

Brooks, Mrs. R. P Forsyth 

Brooks, Prof. R. P Athens 

Brown, Hon. Elijah A 720 Piedmont Ave., Atlanta 

Brown, Hon. E. T Atlanta 

Brown, Dr. George Atlanta 

Brown, J. Epps Capitol, Atlanta 

Brown, Hon. J. J . Atlanta 

Brown, Mrs. O. B Berlin, N. H. 

Brown, Hon. Joseph M Marietta 

Brown, Hon. Pope Hawkinsville 

Brown, Miss Sally E 1100 Peachtree St., Atlanta 

Brown, W. J - - Jackson, Miss. 

Broyles, Arnold Atlanta 

Broyles, Judge N. R Atlanta 

Bryan, Shepard -Atlanta 

Bryan, Mrs. W. T -__Athens 

Bulloch, Dr. J. G. B._1169 Columbia Road, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Burke, Col. J. F - Atlanta 

Burwell, Hon. W. H Sparta 

Butler, Miss Bessie W Madison 

Caldwell, A. B Atlanta 

Calhoun, Dr. T. P Atlanta 

Callaway, Eugene C Ponce de Leon Apartments, Atlanta 

Callaway, Merrel P 2114 LeRoy Place, Washington, D. C. 

Campbell, J. B Atlanta 

Campbell. Dr. W. E Atlanta Nat'l Bk. Bldg., Atlanta 

Candler, Col. Asa G Atlanta 

Candler, Hon. C. M Atlanta 

Candler, Judge J. S Atlanta 

Candler, Chancellor W. A Atlanta 

Carithers. Mrs. J. Y Athens 

Carson, J. A. G Savannah 

Carswell, Mrs. Arabella Walker Waynesboro 

Carswell, George H Irwinton 

Carter, W. Colquitt Atlanta 

Cassels, A. Gordon Savannah 

Chapman, Mrs. L. H Quitman 



66 First Annual Session 

Chappell. L. H Columbus 

Charters, W. A Gainesville 

Clarke, Gen. John W Augusta 

Clark, Mrs. W. C Covington 

Clements, Judge J. C. Interstate Com. Comm., Washington, D. C. 

Cloud, Judge Joel Lexington 

Cobb. Judge A. J Athens 

Cobb, Herschel P - Savannah 

Cobb, John A Americus 

Cobb, Lamar Phoenix, Ariz. 

Cobb, Mrs. Maud Barker State Library, Atlanta 

Cobb, Hon Zach Lamar El Paso, Texas 

Cobb, W. H - ^ Elkins, W. Va. 

Cocke, Mrs. Sarah J Roanoke, Va. 

Cohen, J, Graves Capitol, Atlanta 

Coleman, F. W Atlanta 

Collins, Byron R - Blakely 

Collins, E. C Re^dsvllle 

Connally, T. W - . Atlanta 

Cook, Mrs. S. A Milledgeville 

Coombs, H. H Bainbridge 

Corput, Felix - Cave Springs 

Corrigan, John, Jr 818 Riggs Bldg., Washington, D C. 

Crane, Bryson Augusta 

Crawford, Dr. W. B Lincolnton 

Crenshaw, Dr. Hansell Atlanta 

Crum, Judge D. A. R Cordele 

Dailey, Miss Carrie L State Library, Atlanta 

Dame, Dr. Geo. A Inverness, Fla. 

Daniel, L. J 45 Peachtree St., Atlanta 

Daniel, Mrs. Robt. T Griffin 

Dargan, Milton Atlanta 

Davidson, Mrs. J. L Quitman 

Davis, Dr. E. C __25 E. Linden Ave., Atlanta 

Davis, Mrs. Edwin S Bonnie Crest, Macon 

Davis, Miss Ola Ashburn 

Davis. Mrs. P. W Lexington 

Day. Thos. J Atlanta 

Dean. Hon. H. H Gainesville 

DeLoach, R. J. H Chicago, 111. 

DeLoach. Dr. A. G Grant Bldg, Atlanta 

Denmark, Miss Emma C Forsyth 

Derry, Prof. Jos. T Atlanta 

Dixon, W. N. D Fayetteville 

Dodd. Carl F Atlanta 

Dodaon, Hon. W. A - Americus 

Dooly, Miss Isma Atlanta 



Georgia Historical Association 67 

Dorsey, Hon. Hugh M . Atlanta 

Dozier, Miss Katherine Gainesville 

Duke, Prof. Jos. B - Forsyth 

Dunlap, Edgar Atlanta 

Dunlap, Col. S. C Gainesville 

Eagan, John J Atlanta 

Edmondson, Miss M. V - Meda 

Edwards, Judge M. C Dawson 

Ellis, Robt. C Tifton 

Erwin, Mrs. A. S Athens 

Erwin, Howell C - - Athens 

Erwin, T. C 3rd Nat'l Bk., Atlanta 

Espy, Mrs. E. M Cordele 

Evans, Judge B. D Atlanta 

Evans, T. W Dublin 

Fain, W. L Atlanta 

Farmer, Mrs. Lula M - Thomson 

Felder, Hon. T. S , . Macon 

Felker, J. H Monroe 

Felton, Dr. H. E - Cartersville 

Felton, Judge W. H Macon 

Fish, Judge Wm. H 925 Ponce de Leon Ave.. Atlanta 

Fitzpatrick, Mrs. Z. I Thomasville 

Fleming, Hon, Wm. H Augusta 

Flournoy, John F - Columbus 

Folsom, H. B Mt. Vernon 

Foreman/ Lauren -Atlanta 

Fortson, B. E Athens 

Foster, Mrs. Sophie Lee Atlanta 

Franklin, Mrs. H. M Tennille 

Gaillard, Mrs. B. P - ~ Dahlonega 

Gaines, Rev. F. H Decatur 

Garlington, Hon. Sam F Augusta 

Garrett, Prof. T. H Augusta 

Gibson, Dr. J. T Porterdale 

Glenn, Pres't. G. R Dahlonega 

Gober, Judge Geo. F - Atlanta 

Godard, G. D Milner 

Goetchius, Hon. H. R Columbus 

Golucke, A. G Crawfordville 

Goodrich, L. P Griffin 

Gordon, H. H - Athens 

Gordon, G. A Savannah 

Gorman. O. D Atlanta 

Goss. Dr. L H Athens 

Graham, John M Marietta 



6S First Annual Session 

Grantland, Seaton Griffin 

Gray, Prof. Claud Locust Grove 

Gray, Hon. J. R Atlanta 

Greene, Mrs. M. A Washington 

Grogan, Judge G. C Elberton 

Grice, Hon. Warren ' -Macon 

Griggs, Mrs. J. M Dawson 

Hardaway, Mrs. R. H Newnan 

Hardeman, Judge J. L Macon 

Hardman, Dr. L. G Commerce 

Hardwick, F. T Dalton 

Hardwick, Senator T. W Sandersville 

Harman, H. E - - Atlanta 

Harris, J. C Cave Springs 

Harris, Lucian Atlanta 

Harris, Gov. N. E Atlanta 

Harris, Hon. W. J Federal Trade Comm., Washington, D. C. 

Harrison, Geo. W Box 945, Atlanta 

Harrison, Z. D Atlanta 

Hart, Judge J. C Atlanta 

Harvard, Prof. H. S Boys' High School, Atlanta 

Hays, Mrs. J. E - Montezuma 

Henderson, Miss Lillian State Capitol, Atlanta 

Hermann, H. A Sandersville 

Herty, Dr. Chas. H. New York, N. "Y. 

Hill, Judge H. W - Atlanta 

Hillyer, Judge George Atlanta 

Hillyer, Wm. Hurd Atlanta 

Hine, H. J Rome 

Hinman, Dr. R. E Atlanta 

Hodgson, Harry Atlanta 

Holden, Judge H. M Athens 

Holder, Hon. J. N Jefferson 

Hollingsworth, J. C, Jr - Sylvania 

Horton, M. C 604-5 Temple Court, Atlanta 

Horton, O. E 604-5 Temple Court, Atlanta 

Horton, Pres't. O. R : Milledgeville 

Howard, Hon. W. S - Decatur 

Howell. Hon. Clark Atlanta 

Hoyt, J. Wallace Rhodes Bldg., Atlanta 

Hughes, Hon. D. M Danville 

Hulsey, Hal Athens 

Humphries, Jos. W Atlanta 

Hunt, B. W Eatonton 

Hunt, Prof. H. R Powder Springs 

Hutcheson, J. B Jonesboro 

Huxford, Folks Homerville 



Georgia Historical Association 69 

Jack, Prof. T. H Oxford 

Jackson, M. M Atlanta 

Jacobs, Dr. Jos Atlanta 

Jacobs, Pres't. Thornwell Atlanta 

Jaques, S. R Macon 

Jeffries, Judge T. H Atlanta 

Johnson, Prof. E. H Oxford 

Johnston, G. S - Statesboro 

Jones, Chas. Edgeworth 2249 Walton Way, Augusta 

Jones, G. Noble__- ^Savannah 

Jones, H. S Augusta 

Jones, J. Littleton Newnan 

Jones, Miss Nora Elberton 

Jones, W. F - Elberton 

Jones, Winfield P Atlanta 

Jordan, F. C Monticello 

Jordan, Hon, G. Gunby Columbus 

Kelly, C. P Madison, Fla. 

Kendrick, Dr. W. S. - Atlanta 

Kent, Wm. B Alamo 

Kilpatrick, Prof. W. H Columbia University, New York City 

King, Gary J „ Rome 

King, C. W Rome 

King, J. N Rome 

Kiser, Gordon P Atlanta 

Knight, Lucian Lamar Atlanta 

Ladson, C. T , , ^.Atlanta 

Lamar, Dr. Lucius Dawson 

Landrum, L. M Atlanta 

Lane, Miss Annie M Washington 

Lane, Mrs. Julian C Statesboro 

Lane, Mrs. J. H Sylacauga, Ala. 

Langston, L. O Sou. Bell T. & T. Co., Atlanta 

Larsen, Judge W. W Dublin 

Latimer, W. Carroll Atlanta 

Lawson, Hal Abbeville 

Lee, Hon. Gordon Chickamauga 

Lefurgey, J. J Eton 

Lewis, Mrs. James F Thomaston 

Lewis, Mrs. Lena Felker Capitol, Atlanta 

Lindsay, Judge J. W Atlanta 

Linton, Miss Annie Athens 

Linton, H. H Athens 

Lippitt, A. J : Albany 

Lipscomb. :Mrs. :M. A Athens 

Little. Hon. John D, Atlanta 

Longley, Judge F. M LaGrange 



70 First Annual Session 

Lokey, Dr. Hugh M Atlanta 

Lokey, Mrs. Hugh M.-_ Atlanta 

Lott, Warren Waycross 

Love, Miss Louise O 49 Blue Ridge, Atlanta 

Lowrey, Mrs. J. S Dawson 

Lumpkin, Judge E. K Athens 

McAdoo, , Malcolm R 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, N. Y. 

McCain. Prof. J. R Decatur 

McCallie, Hon. S. W Atlanta 

McCord, Jos. A ..Atlanta 

McDaniel, Ex-Gov. H. D Monroe 

McDaniel, Sanders __ Atlanta 

Mcintosh, H. M Albany 

Maclntyre, W. I Thomasville 

McNeel, M. L ._-..^^„« -, . Marietta 

McPherson, Dr. J. H. T Athens 

McWhorter, Judge Hamilton Athens 

Maddox, Hon. Robt. F Atlanta 

Mann, Mrs. W. E - Dalton 

Martin, Stiles A Atlanta 

Massengale, St. Elmo - Atlanta 

Massey, J. D Columbus 

Matheson, Pres't. K. G - Atlanta 

Matthews, J. E. F Thomaston 

Meadow, Judge D. W Elberton 

Meldrim, Hon. Peter Savannah 

Mell, Rev. John D Athens 

Mell, G. A Athens 

Mell, Dr. P. H 251 E. 10th St., Atlanta 

Mell, Mrs. P. H Atlanta 

Mell, Thos. S Athens 

Meyer. Cecil 4th Nat'l Bk. Bldg., Atlanta 

Michael, M. G - Athens 

Miller, Hon. B. S Columbus 

Mitchell, Eugene M Atlanta 

Moncrief, Rev. A. J Barnesville 

Montgomery, Dr. C. J -Augusta 

Moon, Prof. A. H Bailey 

Moore, Mrs. Lee C Decatur 

Morris, Dean Sylvanus Athens 

Mott, Prof. J. P. - Brunswick 

Murphy, Jno. E Atlanta 

Muse, Miss Jessie Girls' High School, Atlanta 

Nash, Gen. J. VanHolt Atlanta 

Newell, A. C - Atlanta 

Nicolson, Mrs. W. P Atlanta 

Nottingham, Mrs. E. T Thomaston 



Georgia Historical Association 71 

Nunnally, Mrs. W. H Monroe 

Nutting, James R , AtlanU 

Oberdorfer, Eugene Atlanta 

Odum, Prof. H. W Athens 

Olive, Hon. Sam L Augusta 

Orme, Frank - - Atlanta 

Orr, J. K Atlanta 

Ottley, Mrs. J. K . Atlanta 

Owen, Hon. Thomas M Montgomery, Ala. 

Park, Judge Frank Sylvester 

Park, Hon. O. A - Macon 

Park, Walter G . Blakely 

Parker, Oscar Fairburn 

Parker, Mrs. T. C Macon 

Parks, Eenj. G Waycross 

Parks, Pres't. M. M - . Milledgeville 

Patterson, Miss Caroline Macon 

Patterson, Judge T. E Griffin 

Payne, Prof. W. O - Athens 

Peabody, George Foster Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 

Pearce, Pres't. H. J Gainesville 

Persons, A. P Talbotton 

Persons, Hon. G. Ogden . Forsyth 

Peeples, Mrs. Oscar T - . Cartersville 

Phillips, Prof. C. E Boys' High School, Atlanta 

Phillips, Prof. U. B - Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Phillips, Judge W. L Louisville 

Phinizy, Barrett Athens 

Phinizy, Billups - Athens 

Phinizy, C. H Athens 

Pitts, Miss Kate C.__- Toccoa 

Pittman, Mrs. C. E Commerce 

Pope, Hon. Jno. D Albany 

Porter, Mrs. A. L . Sylacauga, Ala. 

Pound, Pres't. J. M ^^ Athens 

Powell, Pres't. R. H. Valdosta 

Prescott, Miss Helen M 791 Peachtree St., Atlanta 

Quarterman, W. H Winder 

Quincey, Judge J. W Douglas 

Rainey, E. L. - , Atlanta 

Rambo, Mrs. S. D Marietta 

Reed, T. W - Athene 

Reeves, D. M Atlanta 

Reld, Prof. W. D Eatonton 

Riley, Lawton Atlanta 

Riley, S. Gayle__- Gainesville 

Ross, Mrs. Edgar A Stonehenge, Bluemont, Va. 

Rounsaville, Mrs. J. A. R Rome 



72 First Annual Session 

Rowe, Hon. H. J Athena 

Rowland, Dr. Dunbar Jackson, Miss, 

Rucker, Capt. J. H Athens 

Rutherford, Miss Mildred Athens 

Sage, Mrs. I. Y Atlanta 

Samuel. P. T._: Box 945, Atlanta 

Sanford, Hon. D. S - Milledgeville 

Sasser, J. A Atlanta 

Saylor, Mrs. Addie B Adairsville 

Sell, Prof. E. S.-_- Athens 

Sellers, Judge A. V Baxley 

Sewell. Prof. H. L - Cartersville 

Shelton, Prof. W. A Athens 

Sheppard, Hon. J. E Americus 

Shipp, Robt. L Moultrie 

Sibley, Mrs. Jennie Hart Union Point 

Sirmans, W. E - Waycross 

Slack, Dr. H. R LaGrange 

Slaton, Ex-Gov. John M Atlanta 

Smith, Senator Hoke Atlanta 

Smith, Hon. R. L. J - Commerce 

Smythe, Mrs. Leila Rains Augusta 

Snelling, Col. C. M Athens 

Spalding, Jack J Atlanta 

Spencer, Mrs. Samuel 2012 Massachusetts Ave., Washington, D. C. 

Stanley, Hon. H. M Atlanta 

Stapleton, Raymonde Elberton 

Stark, Judge W. W Commerce 

Steed, Hon. W. E ; Butler 

Stephens, Hon. Alex W Atlanta 

Stephens, Dr. R. G 1605 Candler Bldg., Atlanta 

Stephenson, Mell R 505 Trust Co. of Ga. Bldg., Atlanta 

Stevens, W. W Mayfield 

Stewart, Prof. J. S Athens 

Strahan, Prof. C. M - Athens 

Strickland, Judge J. J Athens 

Strickland, Mrs. R. F Griffin 

Sutton, C. E Washington 

Talley. J. N Macon 

Tate, L. E -___Tate 

Terrell, Hon. J .Render Greenville 

Therrell, D. M Atlanta 

Thomas. Mrs. Ruby Felder Ray 84 E. 11th St., Atlanta 

Thomas, Mrs. Walter Blakely 

Thomas, Judge W. E Valdosta 

Thomasson, Prof. J. F Bainbridge 

Thorn, Chas. C Atlanta 



Georgia Historical Association 73 

Thornton, Mrs. A. E., Sr 611 Peachtree St., Atlanta 

Thornton, T, J LaGrange 

Torrence, Clayton Valentine Museum, Richmond, Va. 

Trammell, Hon. Paul B Dalton 

Turner, Hon. S. M x Quitman 

Twitty, F. E. - - Brunswick 

Upson, Stephen C Athens 

Van Hoose, Pres't. A. W Rome 

Varnedoe, Major J. O Valdosta 

Vereen, W. C - Moultrie 

Vinson, Hon. Carl Milledgeville 

Vocelle, J. T St. Mary 

Wade, Judge Peyton L Atlanta 

Walker, Chas. M Monroe 

Walker, Hon. Clifford Atlanta 

Walker, Prof. J. Henry Monroe 

Walker, Mrs. J. L Waycrosa 

Walker, Hon. J. Randall - Valdosta 

Walker, Mrs. Robert Lee Cuthbert 

Wardlaw, Mrs. J. F Lafayette 

Watkins, Hon. Edgar Interstate Com. Comm., Washington, D. C. 

West, Judge John T - Thomson 

Whipple, Judge U. V Cordele 

White. Dr. H. C Athens 

White, Mrs. Julia A Athens 

White, Mrs. J. W - Louisville 

White, Miss Willie S Dalton 

Whitner, Chas. F Atlanta 

Wiley, Judge C. M.__ Macon 

Wilkins, Mrs. A. L - Eastman 

Wilkins, Grant Atlanta 

Williford, Hon. Q. L Madison 

Wilson, Mrs. A. McD 436 Peachtree St., Atlanta 

Wilson, Mrs. Walter S 221 E. Jones St., Savannah 

Wimpey, W. E Clarkston 

Wood, Mrs. James S Savannah 

Woodall, W. C - Columbus 

Woodruff, Dr. Caldwell Hyattsville. Md. 

Woodward, A. T Valdosta 

Woodward, Pres't. J. C College Park 

Woofter, Dr. T. J Athens 

Wright, Hon. Boykin Augusta 

Wright, Judge Moses Rome 

Wright, W. C - Newnan 

Wynn, Mrs. James O 81 Peachtree Circle, Atlanta 

■ Yancey. Hon. Hamilton Rome 

Yeomans, Hon. M. J Dawson 

Yow, S, B Lavonia 



74 



First Annual Session 



Members of the Association, by Counties 



Moon, Prof. A. H. 



Allen, Mrs. H. D. 
Beeson, Mrs. J. L. 
Cook, Mrs. S. A. 
Horton, Pres't. O. R. 

W. H. Quarterman. 



Felton, Dr. H. E. 
Peeples, Mrs. Oscar T. 



Adams, B. T. 
Bernd, Miss Florence 
Brock, P. F. 
Davis, Mrs. Edwin S. 
Felder, Hon. T. S. 
Felton, Judge W. H. 
Grice, Hon. Warren 



Chapman, Mrs. L. H. 
Davidson, Mrs. J. L. 



Booth, Hinton 
Johnston, G. S. 



APPLING. 

Sellers, Judge A. V. 

BACON. 

None. 

BAKER. 

None. 

BACDWIN. 

Parks, Pres't. M. M. 
Sanford, Hon. D. S. 
Vinson, Hon. Carl. 

BARROW. 

BANKS. 

None. 

BARTOW. 

Sewell, Prof. H. L. 
Saylor, Mrs. Addie B. 

BEN HILL. 

None. 

BERRIEN. 

None. 

BIBB. 

Hardeman, Judge J. L. 

Jacques, S. R. 

Park, Hon. O. A. 

Parker, Mrs. T. C. 

Patterson, Miss Caroline 

Talley, J. N. 

Wiley, Judge C. M. 

BLECKLEY. 
None. 

BROOKS. 

Turner, S. M. 

BRYAN. 

None. 

BULLOCH. 

Lane, Mrs. Julian C. 



Georgia Historical. Association 



75 



BURKE. 
Carswell, Mrs. Arabella Walker 

BUTTS. 
None. 

CALHOUN. 

None. 
CAMDEN. 



Vocelle, J. T. 



Barrett, Hon. C. S. 



Adamson, Hon W. C. 



Adams, Judge, S. B. 
Carson, J. A. G. 
Cassels, A. Gordon 
Cobb, Herschel P. 
Gordon. G. A. 



Barnett, J. W. 
Barrow, Chancellor D. 
Bickers, D. G. 
Bradwell, J. D. 
Brooks, Prof. R. P. 
Bryan, Mrs. W. T. 
Carithers, Mrs. J. Y. 
Cobb, Judge A. J. 
Erwin, Mrs. A. S. 
Erwin, Howell C. 
Fortson, B. E. 
Gordon, H. H. 



CAMPBELL. 

Parker, Oscar 

CANDLER. 

None. 
CARROLL. 

CATOOSA. 

None. 
CHARLTON. 

None. 
CHATHAM. 

Jones, G. Noble 
Meldrim, Hon. Peter 
Wilson, Mrs. Walter S. 
Wood, Mrs. James S. 

CHATTAHOOCHEE. 

None. 

CHATTOOGA. 

None. 

CHEROKEE. 

None. 

CLARKE. 

Goss, Dr. I. H. 
3. Hodgson, Harry 

Holden, Judge H. M. 
Hulsey, Hal. 
Linton, Miss Annie 
Linton, H. H. 
Lipscomb, Mrs. M. A. 
Lumpkin, Judge E. K. 
McPherson, Dr. J. H. T. 
McWhorter, Judge Hamilton 
Mell, Rev. John D. 
Mell, G. A. 



76 



First Annual Session 



Men, Thos. S. 
Michael, M. G. 
Morris, Dean Sylvanus 
Odum, Prof. H. W. 
Payne, Prof. W. O. 
Phinizy, Barrett 
Phinizy, Billups 
Phinizy, C. H. 
Pound, Pres't. J. M. 
Reed, T. W. 
Rowe, Hon. H. J. 
Rucker, Capt. J. H. 



CLARKE — (Continued). 

Rutherford, Miss Mildred 
Sell, Prof. E. S. 
Shelton, Prof. W. A. 
Snelling, Col. C. M. 
Stewart, Prof. J. S. 
Strahan, Prof. C. M. 
Strickland, Judge J. J. 
Upson, Stephen C. 
White, Dr. H. C. 
White, Mrs. Julia A. 
Woofter, Dr. T. J. 





CLAY. 




None, 




CLAYTON. 


Hutcheson, J. B. 






CLINCH. 


Huxford, Folks 






COBB. 


Boston, John H. 


Hunt, Prof. H. R. 


Brown, Hon. Joseph M. 


McNeel, M. L. 


Graham, John M. 


Rambo, Mrs. S. D. 




COFFEE. 


Quincey, Judge J. W. 






COLQUITT. 


Shipp, Robt. L. 


Vereen, W. C. 




COLUMBIA. 




None. 




COWETA. 


Hardaway, Mrs. R. H. 


Wright, W. C. 


Jones, J. Littleton 






CRAWFORD. 




None. 




CRISP. 


Crura, Judge D. A. R. 


Whipple, Judge U. '' 


Espy, Mrs. E. M. 






DADE. 




None. 




DAWSOX. 




None. 



Georgia Historical Association 



77 



Bradwell, J. S. 
Coombs, H. H. 

Gaines, Rev. F. H. 
Howard, Hon. W. S. 



Wilkins, Mrs. A. L. 
Adkins, T. A. 

Bennet, Sam S. 
Lippitt, A. J, 



Collins, Byron R. 
Park. Walter G. 



Grogan, Judge G. C. 
Jones, Miss Nora 



Bradley, A. S. 



Dixon, W, N. D. 

Andrews, Mrs. Eliza 
Corput, Felix 
Harris, J. C. 
Hine, H. J. 
King, Gary J. 
King, C. W. 



DECATUR. 

Thomasson, Prof. J. F. 

DeKALB. 

McCain, Prof. J. R. 
Moore, Mrs. Lee C. 
Wimpy, W. E. 

DODGE. 
DOOLY. 

DOUGHERTY. 

Mcintosh, H. M. 
Pope, Hon. Jno. D. 
DOUGLAS. 
None. 
EARLY. 

Thomas, Mrs. Walter 

ECHOLS. 

None. 

EFFINGHAM. 

None. 

ELBERT. 

Jones, W. F. 
Meadow, Judge D. W 
Stapleton, Raymonde 

EMANUEL. 

EVANS. 

None. 
FANNIN. 

None. 
FAYETTE. 

FLOYD. 

Frances King, J. N. 

Rounsaville, Mrs. J. A. R. 
Van Hoose, Pres't. A. W. 
Wright, Judge Moses 
Yancey, Hon. Hamilton 



78 



First Annual Session 



FORSYTH. 
None. 

FRANKLIN. 



Yow, S. B. 

Alexander, Hon. H. A. 
Alston, R. C. 

Andrews, Hon. Walter P. 
Arkwright, P. S. 
Austin, James W. 
Avary, R. L. 
Banks, W. W. 
Barker, Miss Tommie Dora 
P.ell, Judge George L. 
Black, Mrs. Nellie Peters 
Boland, Dr. F. K. 
Boylston, Albert 
Branham, Dr. A. I. 
Brittain, Hon. M. L. 
Brown, Hon. Elijah A. 
Brown, Hon. E. T. 
Brown, Dr. George 
Brown, J. Epps 
Brown, J. J. 
Brown, Miss Sallie E. 
Broyles, Arnold 
Broyles, Judge N. R. 
Bryan, Shepard 
Burke, Col. J. P. 
Caldwell, A. B. 
Calhoun, Dr. T. P. 
Callaway, Eugene C. 
Campbell, J. B. 
Campbell, Dr W. E. 
Candler, Col. Asa G. 
Candler, Hon. C. M. 
Candler, Judge J. S. 
Candler, Chancellor W. A. 
Carter, W. Colquitt 
Cobb, Mrs. Maud Barker 
Cohen, J. Graves 
Coleman, F. W. 
Connally, T. W. 
Crenshaw, Dr. Hansell 
Dailey, Carrie L. 



FULTON. 

Daniel, L. J. 
Dargan, Milton 
Davis, Dr. E. C. 
Day, Thos. J. 
DeLoach, Dr. A. G. 
Derry, Prof. Jos. T. 
Dodd, Carl F. 
Dooly, Miss Isma 
Dorsey, Hon. Hugh M. 
Dunlap, Edgar 
Eagan, John J. 
Erwin, T. C. 
Evans, Judge B. D. 
Fain, W. L. 
Fish, Judge Wm. H. 
Foreman, Lauren 
Foster, Mrs. Sophie Lee 
Gober, Judge Geo. F. 
Gorman, O. D. 
Gray, Hon. J. R. 
Harman, H. E. 
Harris, Lucian 
Harris, Gov. N. E. 
Harrison, Geo. W. 
Harrison, Z. D. 
Hart, Judge J. C. 
Harvard, Prof. H. S. 
Henderson, Miss Lillian 
Hill, Judge H. W. 
Hillyer, Judge George 
Hillyer, Wm. Hurd 
Hinman, Dr. R. E. 
Horton, M. C. 
Horton, O. E. 
Howell, Hon. Clark 
Hoyt, J. Wallace 
Humphries, Jos. W. 
Jackson, M. M. 
Jacobs, Dr. Jos. 
Jacobs, Pres't. Thornwell 



Georgia Historical Association 



79 



FULTON- 



Jeffries, Judge T. H. 
Jones, Winfield P. 
Kendrick, Dr. W. S. 
Kiser, Gordon P. 
Knight, Lucian Lamar 
Ladson, C. T. 
Landrum, L. M. 
Langston, L. O. 
Latimer, W. Carroll 
Lindsey, Judge, J. W. 
Little, Hon. John D. 
Lokey, Dr. Hugh M. 
Lokey, Mrs. Hugh M. 
Love, Miss Louise O. 
McCallie, Hon. S. W. 
McCord, Jos. A. 
McDaniel, Sanders 
Maddox, Hon. Robt. F. 
Martin, Stiles A. 
Massengale, St. Elmo 
Matheson, Pres't. K. G. 
Men, Dr. P. H. 
Mell, Mrs. P. H. 
Meyer, Cecil 
Mitchell, Eugene M. 
Murphy, Jno. E. 
Muse, Miss Jessie 
Nash, Gen. J. VanHolt 
Newell, A. C. 
Nicholson, Mrs. W. P. 
Nutting, James R. 



-(Continued). 

Oberdorfer, Eugene 

Olive, Hon. Sam L. 

Orme, Frank 

Orr, J. K. 

Ottley, Mrs. J. K. 

Phillips, Prof. C. E. 

Prescott, Miss Helen M. 

Rainey, E. L. 

Reeves, D. M. 

Riley, Lawton 

Sage, Mrs. I. Y. 

Samuel, P. T. 

Sasser, J. A. 

Slaton, Ex.-Gov. John M. 

Smith, Senator Hoke 

Spalding, Jack J. 

Stanley, Hon. H. M. 

Stephens, Alex "W. 

Stephens, Dr. R. G. 

Stephenson, Mell M. 

Therrell, D. M. 

Thomas, Mrs. Ruby Felder Ray 

Thorn, Chas. C. 

Thornton, Mrs. A. E., Sr. 

Wade, Judge Peyton L. 

Wiilkor, Hon. Clifford 

Whitner, Chas. F. 

Wilkins, Grant 

Wilson, Mrs. A. McD. 

Woodward, Pres't. J. C. 

Wynn, Mrs. James O. 





GILMER. 




None. 




GLASCOCK. 




None. 


" 


GLYNN. 


Mott, Prof. J. P. 


Twitty, F. E. 




GORDON. 




None 




GRADY. 


Bell. R. C. 






GREENE. 


Sibley, Mrs. Jennie Hart. 





80 



First Annual Session 
GWINNETT. 



Brand, L. M. 




' 


HABERSHAM. 


Bass, Miss Addie. 






HALL. 


Bell, Hon. Thos. M. 


Dunlap, Col. 3. C. 


Charters; W. A. 


Pearce, Pres't. H. J. 


Dean, Hon. H. H. 


Riloy, S. Gayle 


Dozipr, Miss K^.thnne 






HANCOCK. 


Enrwell. Hon. W. H. 


Stevens, W. W. 




HARALSON. 




None 




HARRIS. 




None 




HART. 




None 




HEARD. 




None 




HENRY. 


Gray, Prof. Claud 






HOUSTON. 




None 




IRWIN. 




None 




JACKSON. 


Hardman, Dr. L. G. 


Smith, Hon. R. L. J. 


Holder, Hon. J. N. 


Stark, Judge W. W. 


Pittman, Mrs. C. E. 






JASPER. 


Jordan, F. C. 






JEFF DAVIS. 




None 




JEFFERSON. 


Phillips, Judge W. L. 


White, Mrs. J. W. 




JENKLNS. 




None 




JOHNSON. 




None 




JONES. 




None. 



Georgia Historical zVssociation 



81 



Adams, Judge J. S. 
Blackshear, Mrs. E. J. 



Crawford, Dr. W. B. 

Baker, Mrs. T. A. 
Powell, Pres't. R. H. 
Thomas, Judge W. E. 

Gaillard, Mrs. B. P. 
Farmer, Mrs. Lula M. 



Hays, Mrs. J. E. 



Terrell, Hon. J. Render 



Brooks, Mrs. R. P. 
Denmark, Miss Emma C. 



Folsom, H. B. 

Butler, Miss Bessie W. 



LAURENS. 

Evans, T. W. 

Larsen, Judge W. W. 

LEE. 

None 
LIBERTY. 

None 
LINCOLN. 

LOWNDES. 

Varnedoe, J. O. 
Walker, Hon. J. Randall 
Woodward, A. T. 

LUMPKIN. 

Glenn, Pres't. G. R. 

Mcduffie. 

West, Judge John T. 

Mcintosh. 

None 
MACON. 

MADISON. 

None 
MARION. 

None 

MERIWETHER. 

MILLER. 

None 

MILTON. 

None 

MITCHELL. 

None. 

MONROE. 

Duke, Prof. Jos. B, 
Persons, Hon. G. Ogden 

MONTGOMERY. 

MORGAN. 

Williford, Hon. Q. L. 



82 



First Annual Session 





MURRAY. 


Lcfurgey, J. J. 






MUSCOGEE. 


Chappell, L. H. 


Massey, J. D. 


Flournoy, John F. 


Miller, Hon. B. S. 


Goetchius, Hon. H. R. 


Woodall, W, C. 


Jordan, Hon. G. Gunby 






NEWrrON. 


Clark, Mrs. W. C. 


Jack, Prof. T. H. 


Gibson, Dr. J. T. 


Johnson, Prof. E. H 




OCONEE. 




None. 




OGLETHORPE. 


Cloud, Judge Joel 


Davis, Mrs. P. W. 




PAULDING. 




None. 




PICKENS. 


Tate, L. E. 






pierce: 




None. 




PIKE. 


Godard, G. D. 


Moncrief, Rev. A. J. 




POLK. 




None. 




PULASKI. 


Brown, Hon. Pope 




, 


PUTMAN. 


Edmondson, Miss M. V. 


Reid, Prof. W. D. 


Hunt, B. W. 






QUITMAN. 




None. 




RABUN. 


- 


None. 




RANDOLPH. 



Walker, Mrs. Robert Lee 

Barrett, Wm. H. 
Battey, Dr. \V. W., Jr. 
Benton, Mrs. W. N. 
Bohler, Chas. S. 
Clark, Gen. John Vv^ 
Crane, Bryson 
Fleming, Hon. Wm. H. 



RICHMOND. 

Garlington, Hon. Sam F. 
Garrett, Prof. T. H. 
Jones, Chas. Edgeworth 
Jones, H. S. 
Montgomery, Dr. C. J. 
Smytlie, Mrs. Leila Rains 
Wright, Hon. Boykin 



Georgia Historical Association 



83 



Hollingsworth, J. C, Jr. 



Daniel, Mrs. Robt. T. 
Goodrich, L. P. 
Grantland, Seaton 



ROCKDALE. 

None. 

SCHLEY. 

None. 
SCREVEN. 

SPALDING. 

Patterson, Judge T. E. 
Strickland, Mrs. R. F. 

STEPHENS. 



Bailey, W. A. 


Pitts, Miss Kate C. 


Bond, Claude 






STEWART. 




None. 




SUMTER. 


Bahnsen, Peter F. 


Dodson, Hon. W. A. 


Cobb, John A. 


Sheppard, Hon. J. E. 




TALBOT. 


Persons, A. P. 






TALIAFERRO. 


Golucke, A. G. 






TATTNALL. 


Collins, E. C. 






TAYLOR.- 


Steed. Hon. W. E. 






TELFAIR. 




None. 




TERRELL. 


Edwards, Judge M. C. 


Lowrey, Mrs. J. S. 


Griggs, Mrs. J. M. 


Yeomans, Hon. M. J. 


Lamar, Dr. Lucius 






THOMAS. 


Fitzpatrick, Mrs. Z. I. 


Maclntyre, W. I. 




TIFT. 


Ellis, Robt. C. 






TOOMBS. 




None. 




TOWNS. 




None. 



84 First Annual Session 

TROUP. 
Longley, Judge F. M. Thornton, T. J. 

Slack, Dr. H. R. 

Davis, Miss Ola 
Hughes, Hon. D. M. 



TURNER. 
TWIGGS. 



UNION. 

None. 
UPSON. 
Atwater, Capt. James R. Matthews, J. E. F. 

Lewis, Mrs. James F. Nottingham, Mrs. E. T. 

WALKER. 
Lee, Hon. Gordon Wardlaw, Mrs. J. F. 

WALTON. 
Blassingame, Josiali McDaniel, Ex-Gov. H. D. 

Felker, J. H. Nunnally, Mrs. W. H. 

Lewis, Mrs. Lena Felker Walker, Chas. M. 

Walker, Prof. J. Henry 

WARE. 
Bennett, Hon. John W. Parks, Benj. G. 

Berry, E. J. Sirmans, W. E. 

Lott, Warren Walker, Mrs. J. L. 

WARREN. 
None. 

WASHINGTON. 
Franklin, Mrs. H. M. 

Hardwick, Senator T. W. Hermann, H. A. 

WAYNE. 
None. 

WEBSTER. 
None. 



WHEELER. 



Kent, W. B. 



WHITE. 
None. 
WHITFIELD. 
Hardwick, F. T. Trammell, Hon. Paul B. 

Mann, Mrs. W. E. White, Miss Willie S. 

WILCOX. 

Lawson, Hal 



Georgia Historical Association - 85 

WILKES. 
Barnett, E. A. Lane, Miss Annie M. 

Greene, Mrs. M. A. Sutton, C. E. 

WILKINSON. 
Carswell, George H. 

WORTH. 
Park, Judge Frank 

NON-RESIDENTS OF GEORGIA. 

Adamson, Hon. Robert Fire Commissioner, New York, N. Y. 

Bennett, Hon. Claude N Southern Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Blount, Hon. W. A Pensacola, Fla. 

Brantley, Hon .W. G Munsey Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Brown, Mrs. O. B Berlin, N. H. 

Brown, W. J P. O. Box 31, Jackson, MiaS. 

Bulloch, Dr. J. G. B._1669 Columbia Rd., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Callaway, Merrel P 2114 LeRoy Place, Washington, D. C. 

Clements, Judge Judson C Inter. Com. Comm., Washington, D. C. 

Cobb, Lamar Phoenix, Ariz. 

Cobb, Hon. Zach Lamar El Paso, Texas 

Cobb, W. H .Elkins, W. Va. 

Cocke, Mrs. Sarah J Roanoke, Va. 

Corrigan, John, Jr 818 Riggs Building, Washington, D. C. 

Dame, Dr. Geo. A Inverness, Fla. 

DeLoach, R. J. H .-Chicago 

Harris, Hon. W. J Federal Trade Comm., Washington, D. C. 

Herty, Dr. Chas. H New York, N. Y. 

Kelly, C. P Madison, Fla. 

Kilpatrick, Dr. W. H Columbia University, New York City 

Lane, Mrs. J. H Sylacauga, Ala. 

McAdoo, Malcolm R 52 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

Owen, Hon. Thomas M Montgomery, Ala. 

Peabody, George Foster Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 

Phillips, Prof. U. B Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Porter, Mrs. A. L Sylacauga, Ala. 

Ross, Mrs. Edgar A Stonehenge, Bluemont, Va. 

Rowland, Dr. Dunbar Jackson, Miss. 

Spencer, Mrs. Samuel 2012 Mass Ave., Washington, D. C. 

Torrence, Clayton Valentine Museum, Richmond, Va. 

Watkins, Hon. Edgar Interstate Com. Com., Washington, D. C. 

Woodruff, Dr. Caldwell Hyattsville, Md. 



86 



First Annual Session 



Map Showing the Distribution of Members of the Georgia Historical 

Association. 



Bibb 14 

Clarke _ _ _ 47 
Pulton _ _ _142 
Richmond 14 




PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

SECOND ANNUAL SESSION 

OF THE 

Georgia Historical 
Association 



ATLANTA 
APRIL 6. 1918 



CONSTITUTION OF THE GEORGIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Article I. 

The name of this society shall be The Georgia Historical Associa- 
tion. 

Article II. 

The object of the Association shall be to promote the study of 
Georgia history. 

Ai-ticle m. 

The Association shall consist of two classes of members, to-wit: 
regular members, who shall pay an annual fee of two dollars 
($2.00); and sustaining members, who shall pay an annual fee 
of five dollars ($5.00). 

Article IV. 

The officers shall be a president, a vice-president, a secretary- 
treasurer, and an executive council, consisting of the foregoing of- 
ficers and two other members elected by the Association. Ex-presi- 
dents shall also be members of the executive council. These officers 
shall be elected by ballot at each regular annual meeting of the 
Association. 

Article V. 

The Executive Council shall have charge of the general interests 
of the Association, including the election of members, the calling 
of meetings, the preparation of a programme for the meetings, the 
determination of what papers and documents shall be published, and 
the appointment of a managing editor for any publications of the 
Association. 

Article VI. 

The Association shall meet annually on the first Saturday of April 
In the City of Atlanta; but the Executive Council is empowered to 
change the time and place of meeting. Special meetings may be 
called by the Executive Council. Notice in writing and copy of the 
programme shall be sent by the secretary-treasurer to every mem- 
ber not less than ten days before the date of the meeting. Ten mem- 
bers .shall constitute a quorum. 

Article VII. 

This constitution may be amended at any annual meeting, notice 
of such amendments having been given at the previous meeting, or 
the proposed amendment having received the approval of the Ex- 
ecutive Council. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



SECOND ANNUAL SESSION 
OF THE 

Georgia Historical 
Association 



ATLANTA 
APRIL 6, 1918 



1 

! 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Minutes of the Second Annual Meeting 5 

The Plantation Product of Men — By U. B. Phillips 12 

The Secession Movement in Georgia — By Nellie Adamsoti 16 

Notes of the Meeting 26 

Georgia in the Great War — By R. P. Brooks 29 

The Charter of the Association 33 

Members of the Association 35 



Ofl&cers of the Georgia Historical Association 

pRKSiDEXT LuciAX Lamar Knight. M.A., LL.D., State Com- 
piler of Records, Atlanta. 

Vice-President Mrs. Maud Barker Cobb. State 

Librarian, AQaiita. 

Secret.ajsy- Treasurer Robert P. Brooks, Ph.D., Uuiversity 

of Georgia, Athens. 



The Council 

Lucian Lamar Knight. Mrs. ^L^.ud Barker Cobb. 

Robert P. Brooks. Miss Helen M. Prescott. 

Alfred C. Newell. 



Eligibility to Membership 

All persons interested in promoting the cause of Georgia His- 
tory are invited to become members of the Association. The 
dues are $2.00 per annum. 



PROCEEDINGS AND ADDRESSES 

OF THE 

SECOND ANNUAL MEETING 
OF THE 

Georgia Historical Association 

Atlanta, Ga., April 6th, 1918 



MINUTES. 



The second annual meeting of the Georgia Historical Associa- 
tion was called to order at 11:00 o'clock Saturday morning, 
April 6th, 1918, in the Senate Chamber of the Capitol. Presi- 
dent Lucian L. Knight in opening the session referred m a few 
well chosen words to the fact that the first meeting of the Asso- 
ciation had been held only a day or two after the declaration of 
war against the German Empire ; at the luncheon following that 
meeting, a telegram had been sent to President Wilson, pledging 
the support of the organization to his war policies ; and later in 
the year the officers of the Association had sought to ally the 
organization with the many agencies calling on our Senators to 
cease obstructive tactics. ''If this Association does nothing 
else," said he, "let us put the country and the world on notice 
that it is not from a race of slackers that we Georgians have 
sprung." Dr. Knight felt that, while the Association is dis- 
tinctly non-political in character, no just reproach could be aimed 
at it for using such influence as it possesses to uphold the gov- 
ernment in the most momentous crisis the nation has ever faced. 
He hoped the Association, now that a political campaign of great 
importance was pending in Georgia, in which the issue of loyalty 
to the government liad been raised, would renew its pledge of 
loyalty to President Wilson's administration. 

On the conclusion of President Knight's remarks, Hon. Nash 
R. Broyles, Judge of the Court of Appeals, moved, and it was so 
ordered b}- a unanimous vote of the Association, that the follow- 
ing telegram be .sent to the President: ''The Georgia Historical 
Association, in its second annual meeting, again pledges to you 
its unswerving support, to continue until the war ends, and the 
Kaiser is beaten to his knees." 

The following program of papers was then read: 



Second Annu^u. Session 
PROGRAM. 



a n 



The Plautation Product of Men/' by U. B. Phillips, Ph.D., 
University of Michigan. 
''The Secession Movement in Georgia," by Miss Nellie Adamson, 

Rome, Ga. 
''The Wyiuberley Jones DeRenne Georgia Library," by L. L. 
Maekall, Savannah, Ga. 

Professor Phillips described the salient features of the ante- 
bellum slavery regime and presented a carefully thought out 
estimate of the value of the plantation system as a producer of 
a type of men and women well fitted for leadership. Emphasis 
was also put on the idea that the plantation was a homestead as 
v.'cll as an eeouomic institution. A bond of affection bound to- 
gether the members of this homestead, v\iiite and black, and the 
present cordial relations existing between the two races of the 
South Professor Phillips regarded as a heritage from the old 
days. 

Miss Adamson's paper was an interesting review of the main 
currents of sectional antagonism in the decades preceding the 
Civil "War. While Miss Adamson covered ground airead}^ made 
familiar by former writers, her restatement was live and fresh 
and the paper made a most favorable impression. 

Mr. Maekall has been for a number of years engaged in pre- 
paring a bibliography of the DeRenne Collection. This is a 
work of great importance, because the only existing check-list 
of this large collection v»'as very inadequately done and since its 
publication many accessions have been made. The catalogue in 
course of preparation will be arranged along scientific lines. 
The late Mr. DeRenne was peculiarly fortunate in being able 
to enlist the services of Mr. Maekall, since his expert knowledge 
of Georgia histoiy and love for the subject make him the best 
possible choice for the; work. His paper told something of the 
iniert'stiiig life of the founder of the Library, described the set- 
ting oF the beautiful structure which houses the material, and 
I)ointed out the scope of the collection, mention being made of 
sojiie of the rarer treasures. It is greatly regretted that :\Ir. 
^lackaH's paper cnnnoL bt^ printed in the Proceedings, as Geor- 
gians ought to know something of what is, perhaps, the greatest 
collection of material on state historv in the United States. 



Georgia Historical Association 7 

The desire of many members to witness the parade inaugurat- 
ing the Third Liberty Loan campaign made it advisable to omit 
discussion of papers; and the meeting proceeded to dispose of tlie 
business part of the program. This consisted of receiving the 
reports of the Executive Committee and the Treasurer, the ek^e- 
tion of officers and the transaction of misceUaneous business. 
The report of the Executive Committee, given in full Inflow, led 
to the adoption of certain resolutions by the Associatioji. One of 
these looked to the collecting of materials bearing on C.'orgia'.s 
participation in the present war. It v/as moved and carried that 
the President appoint a series of committees charged Avith the 
duty of preserving materials on given aspects of war activities. 
Further mention will be made of these committees und^er th'^ 
Notes. As a beginning of this work, the Association authorized 
the inclusion in the present volume of a list of University of 
Georgia men now in the service of the country ; and the Secretary 
was instructed to apply to officials of other colleges for similar 
lists, which are also to be published in the Proceedings. 

A resolution was also adopted authorizing the Executive Coun- 
cil to communicate with the recently organized Georgia History 
Teachers' Association, with a view to correlating the activities of 
the two bodies. 

The report of the Secretary-Treasurer (printed in full on 
page 9), showed a net balance of $81.12, to which .should be 
added one Liberty Bond of .slOO.OO. Twelve new members were 
added during the year; two were lost by death, and twenty-five 
by resignation. The resignations appear for the most part to 
have been due to war conditions. In accepting the report, thr 
Association authorized the Secretary-Treasurer to invest the sur- 
plus of the coming year, to the extent of $300.00, in Liberty 
Bonds of the third loan. It was felt wise to do this because the 
Association is gradually building up a fund for the nuiintt-nanee 
of a quarterly, and no immediate use can be made of the surplus. 

A committee to bring in nominations for officers was a{)point- 
ed, consisting of Professor T. H. Jnck, Miss Tommie Dorft 
Barker, and Mr. P. F. Brock. The committee presentt'd the fol- 
lowing nominations: For President, L. L. Knif^ht : Vice-Presi- 
dent, Mrs. ]\Inud B;irker Cobb: St'eretnry-Tr''asurer, R. P. 
Brooks; two Jidditional members of the Executive Council, Miss 



8 Second Annual Session 

Helen M. Prescott and Mr. Alfred C. Newell. The Secretary 
Avas instructed to cast a nnaniinous vote for the nominees. 

Mrs. John K. Ottley, Chairman of the Georgia Library Com- 
mission, tlien asked for permission to make a statement relative 
to a bill pending before the Legislature, looking to the establish- 
ment of a system of travelling libraries for the rural population 
of Georgia. On the conclusion of her remarks, the following 
resolution was adopted by the Association: 

''Whereas, There is now pending in the Georgia General As- 
sembly a bill providing for a state appropriation to carry on the 
work of the Georgia Library Commission, having for its main 
purpose the establishment and maintenance of a system of trav- 
elling libraries for the rural communities of the slate, tiiereiore 

Resolved, That the Georgia Historical Association go on record 
as favoring the bill and that the members of the Association lend 
their aid and influence for the passage of this important educa- 
tional measure." 

There being no further business, the meeting was declared ad- 
journed. 

REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCH.. ' 



Two meetings of the Executive Council have been held since 
the last annual meeting, one in October, 1917, the other on the 
evening of April 5th. At the former meeting all members were 
present, and Professor U. B. Phillips, a member of the Associa- 
tion, wa5 also asked to meet with the Council. The principal bus- 
iness was the arranging of a program for the second annual 
meeting. The Secretarj'-Treasurer was authorized to make up 
the progi-am from a list of suggestions tentatively agreed on. 

A large edition of tlie Proceedings of the first annual meeting 
being on liand, tlu- Secrefaiy-Treasurcr was authorized to incur 
the expense of iiiailing the extra copies to a selected list of per- 
sons and to employ stenographic assistance in writing personal 
letters. Scventy-fiv*' copies were ordered to be sent to ^Frs. Cobb, 
State LibiMriaii. for disiribiition among the various State Li- 
braries. 



Georgia Historical Association 9 

The Secretary-Treasurer was authorized to purchase one $100 
Liberty Bond. 

At the meeting held on the evening of April 5th, all members 
were present except Dr. J. R. McCain. The Council modified a 
former action vv'ith reference to the payment of the expenses of 
members of the Council in attendance on Council meetings. It 
was deemed advisable to pay all legitimate expenses, instead of 
mileage only, as had been the custom. It was also agreed to pay 
the expenses of persons wlio came from a distance to read paper's 
before the Association. 

It was determined to lay before the meeting of tlie 6th a plan 
with regard to the collecting of materials bearing on Georgia's 
part in the present war. The Secretary-Treasurer was directed 
to prepare a list of suitable subdivisions of the subject. 

The attention of the Council liaving been drawn to the recent 
organization of a Georgia History Teachers' Association, it was 
resolved that the Association be asked to authorize the correla- 
tion of the activities of the two organizations. It was felt that in 
the event of the inauguration of a (piarterly, a fitting department 
would be one devoted to the interests of those engaged in teach- 
ing history. 

A committee, consisting of Mrs. Cobb and Professor Jack, 
audited the books of the Secretary-Treasurer and found them in 
proper order. 

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-TREASURER OF THE 
GEORGIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATIOX. 

At the first annual meeting of the Association, held in Atlanta. 
on April 10th last year, your Secretary-Treasurer rendered a 
financial report showing a balance on hand of .i=SI:.50, represent- 
ing the sum remaining in the treasury after, the payment of the 
rather heavy expenses incidental to the organization of the Asso- 
ciation. At that time payment of dues liad been made ])y 106 
members. During the year following payments were received 
from 198 otiier members, bringing the total funds in llic treas- 
ury for the fiscal year to $490.50. At the Council meeting hehl 
on the first Saturday in October last, the Treasurer was author- 
ized to ])urehase one One Hundred Dollar Liberty I'ond. (")ther 



10 Second Annual Session 

expenditures are shown on the statement hereto annexed, whicli 
has been audited by a committee of the Council and found cor- 
rect. The balance now remaining in the treasury is $81.12, to 
which the Liberty Bond should be added. The hulk of the $300 
^ expended went into the publication of the Proceedings, that 
item alone consuming about $200.00. 

At the time of the organization 469 members had been obtain- 
ed. Of this number, 165 have not as yet made any payment to 
the Association. The Association should determine on a policy 
with reference to continuing on the roll the names of those who 
remain in arrears. 

During the year twelve new members have been added; two 
have died; and there have been twenty-four resignations. Most 
of the resignations appear to have been caused by war condi- 
tions. Respectfully submitted, 

R. P. Brooks^ Secretary-Treasurer. 

FINANCIAL REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1917-1918. 

April 10, 1917 -Balance on hand (See Proceedings First An- 
nual Meeting, p. 10 $ 84.50 

Received in dues to March 22, 1918 396.00 



$480.50 

1917. Disbursements. 

April 12 _ _ _ -Check No. 10, R. P. Brooks, mileage to and 

from Atlanta, April 10 3.70 

April 20 Check No. 11, P. O. Box Rent, $1.00; and 

Stamps, 50c 1.50 

Check No. 12, Stamped envelopes 10.66 

April 25 Check No. 13, T. H. Jack, mileage to and 

from Atlanta, April 10 1.64 

May 2 Check No. 14. Stamps 2.00 

May 14 Check No. 15. McGregor Co. 7.90 

May 30 Cash for stamps 1.00 

May 29 Check No. 16, J. F. Battle, stenographer. 

for mailing dues notices 3.50 

June 28 _ Check No. 17, McGregor Co., printing 14.00 

Check No. 18, P. O. Box Rent, $1.00; and 

rubber stamp, 25c 1.25 

July 3 _ _ _ -Check No. 19, Stamps for circular 10.00 

Check No. 20, McGregor Co., printing Pro- 
ceedings First Annual Meeting 180.78 

Check No. 21, McGregor Co.. printing dues 

notices 1.50 

Cash for stamps 1.^0 

July 5 _ _ _ -Cash for stamps 1.00 



Georgia Historic.vl Association 11 

July 16 _ _ _ -Check No. 22, W. D. Hooper, Jr., mailing 

circular 2.25 

Aug. 1 _ _ _ -Cash for stamps .25 

Sept. 4 _ _ _ -Check No. 23, McGregor Co., printing cir- 
cular 7.75 

Sept. 6 - _ - -Cash for stamps .25 

Oct. 1 Check No. 24, P. O. Box Rent 1.00 

Cash for stamps ! 1.00 

Oct. '3 _ . -Check No. 25, R. P. Brooks, mileage to and 

• . from Atlanta 3.70 

Oct. 9 Cash for stamps 1.00 

Oct. 20 Cash; express Proceedings to Atlanta .74 

Oct. 25 Check No. 2G, Postage for advertising cop- 
ies of Proceedings 5.00 

Oct. 27 Check No. 27, R. Q. Rodgers, stenographer. 

Letters soliciting memberships 6.00 

Nov. 17 _ _ _ -Check No. 28, McGregor Co., printing dues 

notices 4.75 

Nov. 19 _ _ _ -Cash for stamps .76 

Nov. 29 - -Cheek No. 29, Liberty Bond 100.00 

1918. 

Jan. 1 -Cash; P. O. Box Rent 1.00 

Mar. 21 -Check No. 30. Stamps, $16.00; box file, 

50c; clerical help, 50c 17.00 

Mar. 22 -Check No. 31, J. T. Daves, Jr., clerical help 1.50 

Oct. 29, 1917 -Check No. 32, Stamps 4.00 



$399.38 
81.12 



Balance ?480.50 



12 Secois^d Annual Session 

The Plantation Product of Men^ 

By Ulricii B. Phillips. 

The plantation is largc4y a thing of the past, and yet it is of 
the present. AVe do not live in the past, but the past in us. 
Every man and woman is the product of his or her environment 
and of the environment of his or her forbears, for we are con- 
trolled by tradition. Our minds are the resultant of the experi- 
ences of those who gave us birth and rearing; and this planta- 
tion regime of which we speak was a powerful influence in the 
lives of millions of men and women. 

We think of the plantation as producing staples, tobacco, rice, 
cotton, indigo, but they had a product of equally staple char- 
acter and personalitj''. The plantations were largp farms or in- 
dustrial establishments, but, more than that, they were home- 
steads. The}^ were equipped with negro laborers, but that was 
incidental, because they originated with other than negro labor. 
For example, in Jamaica aboriginal or Indian labor was used ; 
in Virginia the laborers were white men brought over seas as 
indented seiwants. In that colony the plantation reached its full 
type with British labor. Then with the continent of Africa 
available as a source of lusty and cheap labor, it was found ad- 
visable to supplement the failing supply of indented servants ; 
and the institution of slavery v/as revived for the negroes' ad- 
justment and control. 

The plantation system was confined in its habitat to that part 
of North America which we si)eak of as the South, for only 
under certain conditions could it flourish. The most important 
of these was climate as determining crops. The essential re- 
quirement was that the crops under cultivation should be such 
as to require labor virtually the year I'ound. The plantation s^-s- 
tem was the factory system applied to agriculture, employing 
considerable groups laboring undei' su[)ervision. Whereas in 
wheat production labor is seasonal only at seed-time and harvest, 
in the raising of thp Southern staples, work was needed for many 
months of the year. It was an adage among cotton planters 
that it took tliirteen months in tlu^ year to raise a crop. It was 



lExaftin>? <Iuti*'« .-is I'Muratir.n.il lUrrctor of iho V. M. T. A. :it ('unii* C.-r- 
doD made it inijios'^ihle for I'l-.-n^ssor IMiilliiis to prcsfMit ;i foriiiMl piiix-r. He 
ffpoke without iiott"< iiwd tlu' stt'iio-iMptiir iciturt of liis remarks \nn-v j^ivcti 
has been submitted to liim for correction. 



Georgia Historical Association 13 

only in the regions where work was long continued in simple 
routine that plantation industry could flourish. Accordingly, 
that system was distinctive of the South, and it has left an im- 
print upon the South. It left to us a philosophy which we must 
pass on in our turn. That philosophy is expressed in many 
ways. For example, I learned only yesterday that when a newly 
fledged officer in the National Army was recently assigned to a 
negro regiment he expressed utter dismay at the prospect; but 
the Major said very simply, ''Just bear down hard on the non- 
commissioned officers and don't believe anything the negro sol- 
diers may say." At Camp Gordon it is a pleasure to be with 
the negroes, for they are, for the most part, plantation negroes, 
and it is easy to manage them. Those who know" the type, know 
when and where to count on it, and when otherwise. 

The plantation was a homestead, one of considerable scale, and 
isolated. The planter and his household served in a sense as the 
settlement workers do in metropolitan betterment now. They 
serv^ed as patterns of life as w^ell as preceptors in the training 
of a backward people. The spirit of the plantation was that of 
neighborliness, and that again is a thing to be cherished — a 
thing which is now coming into high esteem among social stu- 
dents. 

The planters were quite distinctively magistrates as well as 
administrators. The laborers w^re in their custody and under 
their care for twenty-four hours of every day and three hun- 
dred and sixty-five days of every year. It is the curse of modern 
industrialism that the laborer is in the thought and care of the 
employer only during the hours of labor. Employers have no 
knowledge of or concern with the wives and children or other 
dependents of the employees. This impersonality of modern 
industrialism is a thing wliich has a menace in it that was ut- 
terly" alien to the plantation regime, for the manager of the es- 
tablishment was not merely the owner of the land and apparatus, 
but the owner of the laborers and of tlieir dependents. And the 
master was thoroughly concerned with tiie food, clothing, train- 
ing, and the health and liappiness of the children of his estab- 
lishment, the offspring of Ids laborers, for they were his future 
prospects. The mistress was on her own score head-seamstress, 
nurse and housekeeper for the wiiole establishment. These twain 



14 /8'econd Annu.u. Session 

were thf over-father and the over-mother of all; and the eliil- 
dren, while and hlack, were reared iu large measure in common. 
A spirit oT camaraderie was common among the youngsters; and 
between adults and children alike there was a quite general in- 
timacy an.d cordiality. This was not universal, but was general 
enough to be characteristic. We find the fruits of it at Camp ■ 

Gordon, where white and black enlisted men from the same 
county meet in waiMu friendliness. The cordiality betwci r. tlip 
two elements dates from plantation times. Men who view the 
old Southern regime from afar off and with a theorist's eye are 
likely to think it was an agency of race alienation. So far as 
my understanding goes this is fundamentally erroneous. The 
grouping of persons of the two races in the intimate relation- 
ship of possession tended strongly to counteract that antipathy i 
which all rae-'^s feel toward each other. The possession was not 
wholly of the slave by the master, but also of the master by the 
slave. 

The typical plantation was fairly large, though not as large 
as tradition has it in some cases. One often hears of planters 
who owned a thousand or more slaves, but the census does not 
bear out the claim. ]\rost commonly their working squads com- 
prised but a dozen slaves or so. Nevertheless, as compared with 
ordinary farms, plantations were large establishments, and the 
management of them came within the scope of large affairs. The 
necessity of administering them in great detail recpiired on the 
part of the proprietors ability of a high order, both in the con- 
trol of routine and in the nuiking of constructive plans for fu- 
ture operations. This habitual experience was in itself somewhat 
a training for militaiy service and for statecraft. The planta- 
tion regime, accordingly, produced types of men and women, 
white and black, ttiat are distinctive in the world; and as a stu- 
dent of till' history of the South I consider that I am not a stu- 
cWit of loeal history but of things significant in the history of 
the world. 

Of coui'se, the })iantation system did not occupy everybody in 
the South. Millions were outside of plantation boundaries. Rut 
it gave an impress to the thought of large, if not all, elements of 
the Southern people. It made for strength of character and 
readines>> to meet emergencies, for patience and tact, for large- 



Georgia IItstortcal A.-sociation 15 

miiideclness, gentility and self-control. Now we are in some 
danger of losing the tradition of these things in the whirl of 
modern life; but I think that the impress of the old regime is 
strong enough to endure long — and if those who cherish its 
memory will zealously propagate the qualities it fostered, I think 
that the South may remain in long future times as wholesome, 
constructive and strong as she has been in the past. 



16 Second AnnUxVl Session 

The Secession Movement in Georgia 

By Nellie Adamson. 

If, in any given crisis, we wonld understand the action of a 
people, we must know its birth, training, environment, and the 
pressure brought to bear. So, in order to appreciate the storj 
of Georgia from 1845 to 1861, let us glance through her history; 
try to realize her problems, both economic and social; consider 
the orator in a day when he made public opinion; and estimate 
the influence of the action of neighboring states. 

Georgia ente-red the United States in 1788 as one of the sov- 
ereign parties to a compact of Union. In taking this step no 
state for one moment imagined that she surrendered the right 
to govern aitairs in her own boundaries, to have equal voice with 
other states in the setkiement of any question vrhieh concerned 
all, or the right to leave the Union. The secession movement in 
Virginia and Kentucky, the action of the Hartford Convention, 
the evident and Avidespread sympathy of other states with South 
Carolina and the action of Congress in compromising v/ith her 
over the tariff, her own past triumph in the dispute with the 
Federal Government over the Creek Indians, strengthened Geor- 
^'a's belief in the doctrine of State Sovereignty/ 

As early as 1840 it was evident that both the political and eco- 
nomic life of the South vrere in danger. Both were based upon 
the slave system. Slave labor had prevented the South from 
being filled with immigrants, for the foreigner did not wish to 
compete with the negro. As representation in the lower house 
of Congress was based upon population, the South had lost an 
equal voice in that body; and, should the West be made into free 
states, she would also lose in the Senate. Past events had shown 
that the majority thus left in power would not concern itself 
with the interest of th*^ slave states. IJndei- the slave labor sys- 
tem southern farm lands had been qiuekly vrorn out, more terri- 
tory was necessary, both to get plantations — if southerners were 
to make a living — and to give an outlet for the crowded negro 
population. Aflei- the v/ar v>'ith Mexico southerners asked: 
Why not use the territory acquired? 

Under the ^lissonri Compromist^ part of this would have gon»* 



! Phillips. I.', n.. CtMii-ia and st;'tfs Kigbts, pp. 50-70. 



Georgia Historical Assocl\tion 17 

to the slave interest. The violent disputes in Congress over the 
Wilmot Proviso had shov/n a determination on the part of the 
anti-slavery faction to exclude slavery from all the territories. 
The intense feeling of the Abolitionists had been expressed by 
Garrison when he said at Concord, Massachusetts, Sept. 22, 1845 : 
''If we continue w-ith the South, standing with her and by her in 
her aggression upon ]\Iexico; if we see her taking foreign terri- 
tory to herself, and yet aid her in retaining it, we are as bad as 
she I pray God that party and sect may not be remem- 
bered. I trust that the only question we shall feel like asking 
each other is: 'Are we prepared to stand by the cause of God 
and Libert.y, and to have no union with slave holders?' "- The 
result of this, and other like expressions, was that in the South 
there was a rapidly growing sentiment that only separate gov- 
ernments for the North and South would bring peace and justice. 
The people of Georgia, even before this time, were undoubtedly 
influenced by the oratory of Yancey, of Alabama, and Rhett, of 
South Carolina, who spoke, not to legislatures but to the people 
themselves, urging them to resist the encroachments of the 
Abolitionists and to denounce interference by Congress with 
slavery in tlie territories. 

The prominence of Cobb, Stephens, Toombs, and Berrien, Geor- 
gia's representatives in Congress, made this state the acknowl- 
edged champion of southern rights. Realizing their responsi- 
bility, these statesmen did all in their power to keep down sec- 
tional controversy; yet some of the opposition speeches irri- 
tated Toombs almost beyond endurance ;"' while Stephens wrote 
December 4, 1848: ''I hesitate not to say that in my opinion a 
maintenance of our honor, to say notliing of a vindication of our 

rights requires us to resist aggression No people who are 

not fit for the lowest degradation count the cost or hazard of de- 
fending their honor or their rights. It is better to fall in manly 
struggle than to live and fatten in inglorious ease. And I would 
rather see the v.hole southern race buried in honorable graves 
than to sec them insolently trampled over by such canting, 
whining, puling liypocrites as are now setting themselves up to 
be their reformers."* 



sRrewer, I"). .T., T5cst nr;it!ons. pp. 22-nS. 

aPhillips. T'. P... Lifo of Pohert Tooniha, p. 49. 

^Johnston and I'rowne. Lifo of A!ox:intior II. Stephens, p. 244. 



18 Second Annual Session 

Upon the question of the admission of California as a state 
the whole of Georgia was aroused. A wonderfully interesting 
story is that of the South 's fight in Congress, of the importance 
of the election of Cobb as Speaker of the House, and of Georgia's 
pride in the power of her representatives. We must confine our 
attention, however, to work within the state, speaking of de- 
bates in Congress only as they w^ere reflected in the state's ac- 
tion. 

Many Georgians were willing to have California enter the 
Union as a free state ; but first the status of the remaining terri- 
tory must be determined. As the session of 1849-1850 seemed to 
give no hope of settlement, newspapers urged aggressive defense 
of southern rights, articles appeared most skilfully setting forth 
why the South should secede, ^ and orators endeavored to stir 
the people to action. One of the most influential of these ora- 
tors was a young state Senator, Joseph E. Brown, who said that 
even if the South should yield the territories, other demands 
would surely be made, and finally that of abolition of all slaves.'' 
Berrien, in Congress, stated that as an inevitable result of equal- 
ity, the South intended to participate in all acquisitions of the 
nation." So excited did Georgia become that a state convention 
wa-s called to decide \\'liether or not she would stay in the Union, 
if California was admitted as a free state. 

Toombs' speech of February 27, 1850, excited Georgia to the 
highest pitcli. Beginning, "There is general discontent among 
the people of fifteen states. Popular discontents are rarely ill- 
founded," he continued by saying that this discontent was based 
on tlie fear of southerners that the non-slaveholding states were 
trying to destroy the political rights of the slave states. Guaran- 
tees protecting their property in slaves had been made to the 
southern states to persuade them to join the Union. He demand- 
ed government protection. If southerners saw that the Consti- 
tution could not protect them they would resume the powers 
conferred upon the Federal Government.^ Later, Stepheus spoke 
in a simihir strain. 

Through the numerous letters received from tlieir constitu- 
uents. Col)]). To(Hnbs, and Stephens knew that their policy w;i.s 



STrosfutt. Tho rf)sitif>ti unil Com'se of tho South. 
«Av»'ry. I. W.. ITisitory of (he State of Ooortjin from IS-'O to ISSl. p. 
7ront;r('ssiorial Clohe ApjUMidix, ."'.Ist <'oriir.. 1st Se-;s.. p. L-'OU. 
sOonpros^^ioiial (Uohe A{>pondix. .'Ust Cuntr., 1st Sess., p. ]1>S. 



Georgia Historic.Uj Association IS 

bringing Georgia nearer secession, but tlieir highest desire was 
to save the Union by passing the Compromise offered by Clay; 
afterwards, they thought, they could use their powerful in- 
fluence to hold their state. Finally, with the aid of Fillmore, 
the Compromise was won and Toombs, Stephens, and Cobb has- 
tened home to persuade Georgia to uphold the work which they 
had aided so materially in accomplishing." 

■ Georgians had not understood the tactics of their representa- 
tives. When they returned they found that the Convention 
which Governor Towns had called would likely be composed of 
radicals. Ex-Governor McDonald urged secession, newspapers 
and magazines advocated it/^ and Ex-Governor Troup had vrcit- 
ten a letter stating that secession was the only course left. 

Determined that Georgia xliould stand for the Union and the 
Compromise, Cobb, before he left Washington, wrote an open 
letter to the people of his state.^^ By it he influenced many for 
the Compromise. Toombs, Cobb, and Stephens "stumped the 
state." They put the case most convincingly: The Compromise 
had saved the Union, and, while the South had not gotten all 
she demanded, abolition in the District of Columbia had been 
defeated and the Fugitive Slave Law had been enacted. 

Their campaign was successful. The majority of the dele- 
gates sent to ]Milledgeville, December 10, were Unionists. After 
the usual proceedings of organization, a committee was appoint- 
ed to report action appropriate to the occasion. As chairman, 
Hon. Chas. J. Jenkins submitted a report which briefly review- 
ed the Compromise and stated the two practical questions which 
arose, namely: I\Iight Georgia, consistent with her honor, abide 
by the scheme of pacification? Did her interest lie in adher- 
ence to it ? 

He reported affirmatively for the first, and continued that 
Georgia would abide by the Compromise, but stated it to be the 
deliberate opinion of the Convention that upon the faithful exe- 
cution of the Fugitive Slave Law depended the preservation of 
the much-loved Union. ^■- 



oPbillijts. T'. r... riMrespondonce of Robert Tooinlvs. Aloxander H. Stepliciis. 
and Howell Cohh. isj. T.to. lOl. 

lOL*. S. MnCMzine nrid r)eino(M'atic Review. Jami.iry, 1S."0. 

iiPhillijis, r. R.. C(^rrespond(MU'e <-»f Toouibs. Stepbeus ;iud Cobb, pp. r.'0-2(Hj. 

i-,Touriial of the State Coiiveiitiou of ISolX 



20 Second Annual Session 

This report, known as The Georgia Platform, was adopted a.s 
the present and future political policy of the state. 

Though this action was dubbed "naked and unconcealed sub- 
mission,"^" it successfully opposed the south-wide movement for 
secession and postponed the Civil War for ten years/'^ 

The quiet proved only an intermission. Douglas's Kansas- 
Nebraska Bill and Dixon's proposal to repeal the Missouri Com- 
promise met with violent opposition from the North and hearty 
approval from the South. Not only did these bills give a mag- 
nanimous concession of territory which might be made into 
slave states but the Kansas bill upheld the doctrine of State 
Rights. Violent speeches in Congress, most notably those of 
Sumner,^^ again aroused bitter sectional feeling. The conten- 
tion of the South was very plainly told by Georgia leadors; by 
Toombs at Boston, and by Stephens in Congress. Finally, thej 
were upheld by the United States Supreme Court in the Dred 
Scott decision. This decision filled the Abolitionists with fury 
and they determined that Kansas should not be admitted as a 
slave state. 

Georgia, and other southern states, hurried companies of 
voters to Kansas and, upon that state's application for admis- 
sion under the LeCompton Constitution, demanded that she be 
admitted as a slave state. In this policy they were upheld by 
President Buehanan-^inspired, so the North said, by threats 
of the secession of the South. It is certain that Stephens re- 
ceived letters from his constituents, and also one from Governor 
Brown, stating that the rejection of Kansas would be against 
the purport of the Georgia Platform and so Georgia must se- 
cede, if Kansas were not admitted.^^ 

This constant irritation kept both sides extremely sensitive, 
yet many Georgians refused to become excited; some editors 
wrote that the trouble was caused by political juggling. The 
state was prosperous, they said, why stir up trouble ? 

Yet economic prosperity was thought to be based on political 
prosperity and it was incumbent upon southerners in 1859 to 
elect to the presidency a man who would favor their doctrines. 
Douglas was by far the strongest candidate, but he had forever 



issiivflnnah. neorei.i. .Tanunrv 1. isr>l. 

i^Brooks. It. P.. History of OorKi.-i, p. 244. 

ifiConirrcf^sionril (;i<,he AppemUx. I'Ath Cou^., 1st Sess.. pp. .%29-544. 

i«Phimps. U. J3.. Correspondence of Toombs, Stephens and Col)b, pp. 420-431. 



Georgia Historical Association 21 

lost the confidence of the South by advocating "squatter sov- 
ereignty" rather than government a i protection of shive property 
in the territories;^^ then, too, he had displeased Cobb. It seemed 
to Georgia that Stephens could win the nomination at Charles- 
ton, but he declined the use of his name. At Augusta he told 
Georgia that all was settled ; Kansas had decided not to ask ad- 
mission, and the Supreme Court had decided in favor of the 
South. 

If Stephens really thought that, Iverson, Senator from Geor- 
gia, did not. The iirst intimation of the gathering political storm 
was given by him in July, 1859. He told Georgia that a free- 
soil president would be elected the next year, that such an elec- 
tion would be a declaration of war against slavery ; and he advo- 
cated immediate secession should his prediction come to pss^.^® 

Newspapers and orators now vied with each other in support- 
ing Stephens or Iverson ; but all agreed in upholding the honor 
of the South and, led by Toombs, in making undying war on 
''squatter sovereignty." Georgia papers published, with inter- 
esting comments, accounts of the difficulties encountered in ar- 
resting runaway slaves. Governor Brown, who had been re- 
elected, stood squarely for secession, unless Georgia was admitted 
to have equal sovereignty v/ith all other states. The only way to 
get this, he thought, was to demand, at the Charleston conven- 
tion, a nominee who would stand whole-heartedly for protection 
of property in the territories : if Georgia could not get this, she 
must choose between her own cause and the Union. 

Just before the Charleston convention the whole South was in- 
furiated by John Brown's raid, in which southerners thought 
they saw the kind of effort to be used by the North in freeing the 
slaves. Georgia's legislature said, ''Fanaticism grown bold by 
impunity has invoked the aid of treason, m.urder and rapine . . . 
The state of Georgia holds herself ready to enter into any concert 
of action with the sister southern states which will secure their 
common rights under the Constitution, in the Union, or, if that 
be no longer possible, their independence and security out of 

This feeling was not lessened by the report of northern cora- 



iTSouthern Recorder. .\rav 10, ISTiJ). 

iRAvery. T. W.. Illstorv of Geor<^'ia from isr>0 to 1881. p. 104. 

i»Avery, I. W., History of Georgia, p. 106. 



22 Second Annual Session 

ment on Joliii Brown's raid. Especially did tiie South resent 
Wendell Pliiilips' words, ''Virginia is a pirate ship and John 
Brown sails the seas a Lord High Admiral of the Almighty with 
commission to sink every pirate he meets on God's ocean of the 
nineteenth century." 

Georgia's patience was worn thread-bore; it seemed useless 
to struggle longer. The Rome Weekly Courier, published in 
North Georgia, had as the salutatory of its new editor: "The 
rapidity with which the Republicans have spread over the entire 
North, the recent attempt at Hai'per's Ferry, the endorsement 
in the North of Helper's Impending Crisis, a book written, cir- 
culated and endorsed with the declared object of instigating not 
only slaves, but non-slaveholders, in our midst to rise in arms 

all vv'arn us that tlie time has come when southern men 

should ignore party distinctions and unite as one people 

in defense of life, liberty and property."-*^ 

It can be readily seen that little more was needed to persuade 
Georgia that her only safety lay in disunion. 

The delegates to Charleston went uninstructed, but fully aware 
that they must demand national protection of slave property in 
the territories. It is needless to review their failure and conse- 
quent withdrawal : nor can we here go into the history of the 
several nominating conventions. It is well known that in tlie 
presidential campaign of 1859-1860, southern strength was di- 
vided among Douglas. Bell, and Breckenridge. 

Never was a fiercer contest waged in Georgia. Great gather- 
ings and fiery orators were plentiful. Bell was attacked for not 
having endorsed the Dred Scott decision, Douglas for being 
ready to join the "Black Republicans," while Breckenridge was 
denounced as a "fire-eater." This division in Georgia, and, on 
a larger scale in the whole South, elected Lincoln. Some saw 
that this would be the result. Benjamin H. Hill advised a union 
of all parties, but had only ridicule for his reward. No, Georgia, 
and the South, feeling that enough had been yielded and com- 
promised, demanded a President who would stand for what they 
considered their rights, or disunion. The message of Governor 
Brown was not a quieting one; he announced that, should Lin- 



-ORome Weekly Courier. January 0. ISGO. 



Georgia Historical Association 23 

coin be elected, a state convention sliould be called to decide the 
action of Georgia. 

Lincoln was elected. County conventions demanded that the 
state legislature declare Georgia out of the Union. Savannah 
demanded the organization and arming of the military forces of 
the state. 

Against this almost unanimous action there were a few strong 
pleas for time, reconciliation and union. Some counties wished 
Georgia to act only in concert with other states. But the desire 
of most was typified by an incident in Richmond county. When 
the county convention met, the chairman announced that over 
their heads, on the eupalo of the Temple of Justice, tiiere \\'aved 
a white flag with a lone star. On the flag was inscribed : "Equal- 
ity in, or independence out of, the Uniou/" This statem^ut was 
greeted with tumultuous applause and the motto taken for that 
of the convention. 

Alexander H. Stephens threw the whole power of his great 
fame, intellect, and oratory against secession. Benjamin II. 
Hill pleaded : Let Georgia make one more effort to save the 
Union. If the North was opposed to the Constitution, let it se- 
cede. Why should the South give up the blessings of the Union. 
But against these rang the " door-sill" speech of Toombs: "De- 
fend yourselves. The enemy is at your door, wait not to meet 
him at the hearthstone." And Cobb, who had resigned his posi- 
tion as Seci-etnry of Treasury, wrote. December 7, that every hour 
Georgia remained in the L^nion would be one of degradation. 

Divided in allegiance to Toombs and Cobb against Stephens 
and Hill, Georgians made a great fight over the election of dele- 
gates to the state convention which was to meet in January, 1861. 
Clear thought was made more difficult by the excitement in 
neighboring states. South Carolina had seceded December 20, 
and, joined by Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, seemed to 
hold beckoning hands to Georgia. State-wide celebrations 
showed tluit the people gave approval to the act of South Caro- 
lina. When news came that Ft. ^loultrie had been burned by 
Federal troops, Francis Bartow, who, in a most impassioned 
speech was addressing the people of Atlanta, cried, "Is this gal- 
lant, noblf state of Soutli Carolina to be left to the cold, calcu- 
lating cooperationalists of Georgia?" The answer was, "No! 



24 Second Annu^u^ Session 

Never! Never!! Never!!!" This feeling was encouraged by tb(^ 
action of Governor Brown in seizing Ft. Pulaski, lest it fall into 
the hands of the North. 

The convention which was to decide the fate of Georgia met 
in Milledgeville, January 16, 1861. Every man of political prom- 
inence in the state was present, for the people, realizing the 
gravity of the situation, had sent their strongest representatives. 
In order to test the sentiment of the body Judge E. A. Nisbet 
offered a resolution of secession.-^ Hon. H. V. Johnson set forth 
a substitute by which Georgia announced her determination to 
withdraw from the states maintaining Personal Liberty Acts, 
should they not repeal them, and pledged herself to make com- 
mon cause with any seceding state v/hich the government should 
try to coerce. This amendment was supported by Stephens, v;ho 
declared that he had not yet lost faith in the Union, and that 
Georgia should postpone secession until some overt act was com- 
mitted. Hill joined in this plea. But the advice of these could 
not withstand the marvelous power and high prestige of Toombs. 
A few days before, bidding farewell to the United States Senate, 
he had thrown down the gauntlet: ''Senators, my countrymen 
demanded no new government, no new Constitution. You will 
not regard Constitutional obligations, you will not regard your 
oaths. We have appealed time and again for these Constitu- 
tional rights. You have refused them We appeal again. 

Refuse them, and what then? We shall ask you, 'Let us depart 
in peace. ' Refuse that and you present us war. We accept it ; 
and, inscribing on our banners the glorious words, 'Liberty and 
Equality,' we will trust to the blood of the brave and the God 
of battles for security and tranquility."-^ 

Upon those delegates who even yet favored Georgia's remain- 
ing in the Union, fell the fiery words of Thomas R. R. Cobb as 
he recounted Georgia's wrongs and demanded immediate se- 
cession. He would hesitate, he said, to advise disunion were the 
issues involved temporary. Did not the delegates remember the 
fears of wife and daughter at being left alone? Every day 
•brought notice of slave uprisings ; there was no protection in 
the United States government. 

On January 19, Nisbet 's resolution was put to a vote and 



^.Tonrnal of the r.oorpla Convontion of ISOl. 
t^Congressional Glob<i, 36th Cong., 2nd Sess., pp. 267-271. 



Georgia HisTORiCxiL Association 25 

carried 208 to 89.-^ The formal work was soon done, the com- 
mittee appointed reporting the following Ordinance of Seces- 
sion: 

AN ORDINANCE 

To dissolve the union between the state of Georgia and other 
states united with her under the Compact of Government en- 
titled, The Constitution of the United States of America. 

We the people of the state of Georgia in convention assem- 
bled, do declare and ordain, and it is hereby declared and or- 
dained : 

That the ordinance adopted by the people of the state of Geor- 
gia in convention on the second day of January, in the year of 
our Lord, seventeen hundred and eighty-eight, whereby the Con- 
stitution of the United States of America was assented to, rati- 
fied and adopted ; and also all acts and parts of acts of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of this state ratifying and adopting araendmenis 
of the said Constitution, are hereby repealed, rescinded, and ab- 
rogated. 

We do further declare and ordain, That the Union now sub- 
sisting between the state of Georgia and other states, under the 
name of ''The United States of America," is hereby dissolved, 
and that the state of Georgia is in the full possession and exer- 
cise of all those rights of sovereignty which belong and apper- 
tain to a free and independent state. 



fjournal of the (i<H»rj;L'i Convt^ntlon of 1S61. 



26 Second Axnu.vl Session 

NOTES OF THE MEETING. 



In the Proceedings of the first annual meeting, acknowledg- 
ment was made to Messrs. 0. E. & M. C. Horton for preparing 
without charge the Charter uf the Association herein published. 
The Association is also indebted to Hon. Arnold Broyles, Clerk 
of the Supei'ior Court of Fulton County, for having recorded the 
instrument without cost to the organization; and to Mr. James 
Kempton, who gave the Charter free publication in his Fulton 
County Court Report. 



The program sent to members contained the names of only two 
contributors of papers. Mr. Robert C. Alston, of Atlanta, who 
had agreed to read a paper, was obliged on account of the pres- 
sure of professioiml \^'ork to withdrew his consent at the last 
moment. During the fall of last year, an invitation had been 
extended to Mr. L. L. Mackall, Librarian of the Wymberley 
Jones DeRenne Georgia Library, to present a paper descriptive 
of that collection. Mr. Mackall declined the invitation, but a day 
or two before the meeting, and after the program liad been print- 
ed, he wrote that conditions had so changed as to make it possi- 
ble for him to come to Atlanta. This was a welcome addition to 
the program, though unfortunately we are unable to print his 
I)aper in the Proceedings. 



The Association was most fortunate in having Professor Phil- 
lips on the program. The fact that his post of duty, the Uni- 
versity of ^lichigan, is so distant, would ordinarily have made it 
impracticable for him to render this service. But at present, 
Professor Phillips is absent on leave, serving the government as 
educational director at Camp Gordon. Professor Phillips is the 
leading student and writer in the country on southern ante-bel- 
lum history ; and lii^ work in that field has given him a very high 
rank anion-z American h.istoriaiis. His best known works are the 
great collection of documents on the plantation regime, which 
constitute Volumes I and IT of the Documentaiy History of 
American industrial Society; his History of Transportation in 
the Eastern Cotton H(4t to LSGO; his Georiria ami Stale Ri^'hts; 



Georgia Historical Association 27 

the large volume of Correspondence of Toombs, Stephens, and 
Cobb ; and his life of Robert Toombs. His most recent work is 
just off the press. It is entitled a History of American Negro 
Slavery. 



A resolution wa.s adopted in the business meeting authorizing 
liie publication in the Proceedings of the names of all the Uni- 
versity of Georgia men now in the military service of the United 
States. It was found on applying to the University authorities 
that a bulletin of the institution would shortly appear containing 
these names ; and it was, therefore, deemed unnecessary to incur 
the expense of publishing them in this volume. 



Among those present at the meeting were : ]Miss Xellie Adam- 
son, of Rome; Mrs. H. D. Allen, of Milledgeville ; Judge 0. H. 
P. Bloodworth, Hon. M. L. Brittain, Miss Tommie Dora Barker ; 
Mr. P. F. Brock, of Macon; I\Irs. R. P. Brooks, of Forsyth: 
Prof. R. P. Brooks, of Athens; Judge Nash R. Broyles, jMrs. 
Maud Barker Cobb, Mr. J. Graves Cohen, Dr. and Mrs. E. L. 
Connelly; Mrs. S. A. Cook, of Milledgeville: Prof. J. T. Dorvy, 
Miss Carrie L. Dailey, Judge Frank Harwell, Judge Jno. C. 
Plart, Prof. 11. S. Harvard, Miss Lillian Henderson, ^Irs.- G. 
P. Hill: Prof. T. II. Jack, of Oxford; Hon. L. L. Knight; Mr. J. 
J. Lefurgey, of Kingston: Judge J. W. Lindsey, ]\Iiss Louise 0. 
Love; Mr. L. L. Mackall, of Savannah: Prof. J. R. :\IcCain, of 
Decatur; Prof, and Mrs. U. B. Phillips, of Ann Arbor, ^lich. : 
Prof .E. C. Phillips, Mrs. Ruby Felder Ray Thomas. :\riss Ella 
May Thornton, Judge Peyton L. Wade. 



Dr. P. H. Mell, a charter member of the Association, has just 
presented to the T'niversity of Georgia his collection of books 
and pamphlets. Dr. Mell, eldest son of a former Chancellor of 
the University, was for many years Professor of Geology and 
Botany in the Alabama I^olyteehnic Institute and later Presi- 
dent of Clemson Collei^'e, South Cai'olina. The collection is one 
of the largest and most valuable ever given the Univi*rsity. It 
is principally scientific, comprising many works on Botany, 



28 Second Annual Session 

Microscopy, Agriculture, and kindred subjects. Of special iut<3r- 
est to historical students there are a number of volumes, such a.s 
Tucker's History of the United States; five volumes of South 
Carolina Statutes, 1768-1814; six volumes of American State 
Papers; Simmons Colonial Magazine, eleven volumes; a collec- 
tion of pamphlets published during the Civil War; and, most 
important of all, a complete file of The Southern Cultivator to 
1867. Mrs. Mell is a daughter of Mr. Wm. H. White, one of the 
first editors of The Culiivaior, and this file is that preserved by 
him. 



Owing to a regrettable error the names of Dr. and Mrs. E. L. 
Connally were not included in the first volume of Proceedings as 
charter members of the Association. The following new mem- 
bers have been added to the list during the year : Miss Nelli*^ 
Adamson, Rome; Prof. Kyle T. Alfriend, Milledgeville ; Mr. A. 
3^f. Arnett, Sylvania; Prof. J. W. W. Daniel, Macon; Mr. L. C 
Hall, Milledgeville; Mr. B. F. Hardeman, Athens; Prof. L. D. 
Newton, Macon ; Miss Julia B. Reid, McRae ; Mr. J. G. Tow^ery, 
Decatur; Mr. W. R. Turner, Millen; and Rev. M. S. Williamg, 
Oxford. 



Geougia IIistoricatj Association 29 

Georgia in the Great War 

By R. p. Brooks. 

All students of Georgia's participation in the Civil War have 
been confronted at the outset of their work with great difficulty 
in securing first-hand records. Very few people kept diaries of 
the events, personal correspondence was not preserved, in many 
cases the files of newspapers have been lost through fire and neg- 
lect. Except for the publications of the United States govern- 
ment and of the state of Georgia, we really have very little 
source material for the great struggle of the sixties. Clearly we 
must profit by this lamentable experience and begin now to mak(; 
the record for the future historian. 

At the April, 1918, meeting of our Association, a resotutioa 
was passed directing the officers to begin this work, and leaving 
with tlieiu the devising of ways and means. The ideal method 
would be the organization in each county of a committee to ]>re- 
serv^e the record of the county's work; but our limited member- 
ship makes such a course impracticable. The only alterua'ive 
that offers any hope of results seemed to be the division of the 
subject into its logical parts and appointing committees, the 
membei'sliip being geographically distributed, to handle the va- 
rious subjects. A list will presently be given of the (<)m- 
mittees and the names of those \\'\io are asked to serve ou 
them. Tlie Secretary has communicated with the Chairmen and 
has obtained the consent of all of them to undertake the work. 
The Chairmen have undertaken to obtain the consent of the 
other members of the committees. No doubt some substitutions 
will be necessary, but it was thought unwise to delay further 
the publication of the Proceedings. Of course, these committees 
will be grateful for any assistance rendered them by other mem- 
bers of the Association. Indeed, it is highly desirable that every 
member should regard himself as a member of every committee. 
President Knight will be glad to add to any committee the name 
of any member who desires to serve. 

1. MujTARY AcTRiTiES — P. F. Brock, Macon, Chairman; Mis«i 
C'arrie L. Dailey, Capitol Library, Atlanta; Prof. T. II. Garrett, 
Augusta; :\rr. T. W. Heed, Athens; :SU\ Folks Iluxford, Ilomer- 
Tille. 

2. Statk W.\k Organizations {Jied Cross, Liberty Loan, Com- 



30 Second Annual Session 

inittees on Civilian Relief, etc.) — Prof. J. W. W. Daniel, AVcsley- 
an, Macon, Chairman; President J. M. Pound, Athens: Mrs. 
J. K. Ottley, Atlanta ; Prof. J. P. Mott, Brunswick. 

3. Women ^s Patriotic Societies (D. A. R., U. D. C, Women's 
Clubs, etc.)— ^Irs. H. M. Franklin, Tennille, Chairman; Miss 
Kate C. Pitts, Toccoa ; :\rrs. J. S. Wood, Savannah; Mrs. J. L. 
Walker, Waycross. 

4. Effect of the War on Education — Prof. E. C. Phillips, 
Boys' High School, Atlanta, Chairman; Prof. J. P". Thomasson, 
Bainbridge ; Miss Emma C. Denmark, Forsyth ; Prof. J, S. 
Stewart, Athens. 

5. Effect of the War on Agriculture — Prof. R. P. Brooks, 
Athens, Chairman; Prof. Jos. T. Derry, State Capitol, Atlanta; 
Mr. J. D. Bradwell, Athens; Mr. Lott Warren, Waycross; Hon. 
Hamilton Yancey, Rome. 

6. Effect of the War on Industries — Miss Florence Bernd, 
197 Laurel Ave., Macon, Chairman; Prof. W. A. Shelton, Ath- 
ens; Hon. G. Gunby Jordan, Columbus; ^Ir. Claude Bond, Toc- 
coa. 

7. Effect of the War on Social Life — Mrs. Ruby Ray Fel- 
der Thomas, 84 E. 11th St., Atlanta, Chairman; Mrs. Walter S. 
Wilson, Savannah; Miss Addie Bass, Clarkesville ; Mr. Thos. 
AV. Connally, Atlanta. 

8. Effect op the War on Economic Life — Hon. B. W. Hunt, 
Eatonton, Chairman; Hon. R. F. Aladdox, Atlanta; Hon. W. I. 
Mclntyre, Thomasville ; Mr. J. D. ]\Iassey, Columbus. 

9. Georgia Politics During the AYar — Hon. 0. A. Park, Ma- 
con, Chairman ; Hon. Y". II. Fleming, Augusta ; Judge Peter Y^. 
Meldrim, Savannah; ^liss Nellie Adamson, Rome: Prof. T. H. 
'Jack, Oxford; Judge Andrew J. Cobb, Athens. 

10. AVar Literature — AErs. S. A. Cook, AIilledgevilh% Chnir- 
man; Aliss Annie AI. Lane, AVnshington : Air. Chas. E. Jones, Au- 
gusta; Airs. J. L. Bee.son, Alilledgeville. 

The following suggestions are made for the gui<lnnce of the 
committees. Tht.^ most obvious and by far the most important of 
the sources of history in mod(M'n times is the newspaper. There 
is not in Georgia any central depository for the files of state 
papers. Newspaper tiles are notably ephemeral. AYe have wit- 
nessed in Ceorgia during the past ten years the complete de- 



Georgia Historicu. Association 31 

striictiou by fire of two of our most important files, and another 
has been lost to us by sale to a northern institution. The com- 
mittees should scan every issue of the leading state and local 
papers for items of imi:>ortance along the line of the committee's 
work, and clip the items, being careful to preserve the name and 
date of the paper. These clippings should then be filed in some 
convenient way, say in plain manila envelopes. 
. Another class of printed material which will be of much in- 
terest in the future are handbills, posters, programs of public 
meetings, and the like. Photographs of persons or groups en- 
gaged in war work may also be included in this category. 

Much valuable historical material escapes being printed. There 
are many war organizations, such as Liberty Loan Campaign 
CommitteeSj K^d Cross Committees, and Civilian Relief Commit- 
tees. Such organizations usually- have secretaries, who keep a 
record of the organization's w^ork. It should not be difficult to 
obtain the minutes, after they have ceased to become imme- 
diately useful. 

Another historical source of great value are the letters written 
by soldiers from cantonments and from the front. Tliey give a 
live, first-hand account of conditions which could never be ob- 
tained from the dry government documents. "Where possible, 
the committees should get possession of the original letters. If 
this cannot be done, get copies. Many such letters are ai)pear- 
ing in the papers: these should be clipped. 

An important contribution to the history of these perilous 
days will be the impressions of the members of the committees 
themselves. Some are bankers, others professional men and 
women, others are engaged in business or farming. If the com- 
mitteemen would start diaries, they would be of immense value — 
of much greater importance than the "recoUecrions"' which 
many will ieei impelled to write in later y?ars. 

The chainnen of the committees should keep in touch wi h 
the other members, receiving from them such miterials as they 
collect. This material should be carefully presfM'ved foi* tlie an- 
nual report at the meeting of the Association; and then be de- 
posited with ]\Ir. Knight, who in his official cjipacity as State 
Compiler of Records, will make provision for the permanent 
preservation of all documents and other material entrusted to 
him. 



V 

32 Second Annu.yl Session |; 

These general suggestions applying to all committees might 
be elaborated for special committees. If the chairmen feel the 
need of further assistance, the Secretary will be glad at all times 
to render any assistance in his power. This is a work of great 
importance, and the Association has a wonderful opportunity 
to do a service of lastins: value. 



Georgia HistoriCxVl Association 33 

CHARTER OF THE GEORGIA HISTORICAI.. ASSOCIxVTION. 

GEORGIA, Fulton County: 

The petition of Lucian Lamar Knight, of Fulton; T. H. Jack, of 
Newton; R. P. Brooks, of Clarke; Mrs. Maude Barker Cobb, of Ful- 
ton; and J. R. McCain, of DeKalb, all of said state, respectfully 
shows: 

1. That they desire for themselves, their associates and succes- 
sors to be incorporated and made a body politic for the purpose of 
promoting the study of Georgia history under the name and style 
of GEORGIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

2. That the term for which petitioners ask to be incorporated is 
twenty years, with the privilege of renewal at the expiration of that 
period. 

3. That the location and principal ofRce of said corporation shall 
be in the City of Atlanta, state and county aforesaid. 

4. That said corporation has no capital stock and is not organized 
for pecuniary gain, but is for the purpose of promotiong the study of 
the history of Georgia. 

5. That petitioners desire to purchase and hold such real estate 
as may be necessary for the conduct of its business, or to sell or en- 
cumber by mortgage, lien, security deed or otherwise, the same for 
the purposes of the corporation. 

6. That said association shall consist of two classes of members, 
to-wit: regular members, who shall pay an annual fee of $2.00, and 
sustaining members, who shall pay an annual fee of $5.00; that. said 
Association shall have the following officers, to-wit: A President, a 
Vice-President, a Secretary-Treasurer, and an Executive Council, con- 
sisting of the foregoing officers and two members elected by the 
Association; that ex-presidents shall also be members of the Execu- 
tive Council; that said officers shall be elected by ballot at each reg- 
ular annual meeting of the Association. 

7. That the Executive Council shall have charge of the genenil 
interests of the Association, including the expenditure of the funds 
of the organization, the election of members, the calling of meet- 
ings, the preparation of a program for the meetings, the determina- 
tion of what papers and documents shall be published, and the ap- 
pointment of a managing editor for any publication of the Associa- 
tion. 

S. That the calling of all meetings, the time and place of hold- 
ing same shall devolve upon the Executive Council. 

9. That said Association be empowered to adopt such constitution 
and by-laws for its government and control as may be for its best 
interests and amend same from time to time a^ its needs may re- 
quire. 

10. That said Association be allowed to receive any donation from 



34 Second Annual Session 

time to time that may be offered it for the promotion of the pur- 
pose of said Association. 

11. That said Association be clothed with all the powers, privi- 
leges, and immunities that are necessary under the law for the con- 
duct of such an Association, and that it be subject to all the rules 
and regulations of law governing such an Association. 

Wherefore, petitioners pray to be incorporated under the name 
and style ai'oresaid, with ithe powers, privileges, p„nd immunities 
herein set forth, and as are now, or may hereafter be. allowed a 
corporation of similar character under the laws of Georgia. 

HORTON BROTHERS, 

Filed in office, April 30th, 1917. Attorneys for Petitioners. 

ARNOLD BROYLES, Clerk. 
NO. 5783. APPLICATION FOR CHARTER IN THE SUPERIOR 

COURT OF SAID STATE AND COUNTY. 
STATE OF GEORGIA, County of Fulton: 

Whereas Lucian Lamar Knight, of Fulton county; T. H. Jack, of 
Newton county; R. P. Brooks, of Clarke county; Mrs. Maud Barker 
Cobb, of Fulton county; and J. R. McCain, of DeKalb county, all of 
said state of Georgia, having filed in the office of the Clerk of ttie 
Superior Court of said county their petition seeking the formation of 
a corporation to be known as "GEORGIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIA- 
TION," with no capital stock, same being a social and eleemosynary 
association, and having complied with the statutes in such cases 
made and provided, and upon the hearing of said petition, the court 
being satisfied that the application is legitimately within the pur- 
view and intention of the Civil Cede of 1910, and the laws amend- 
atory thereof; it is hereby ordered and declared that said applica- 
tion is granted, and the above named petitioners and their suc- 
cessors are hereby incorporated under the said name and style of 
"GEORGIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION" for and during the pe- 
riod of twenty years, with the privilege of renewal at the expiration 
of that time, according to the provisions of the laws of this state. 
and said corporators and their successors are hereby clothed with 
all the rights, privileges and powers, mentioned in said petition and 
made subject to all the restrictions and liabilities fixed by law. 

This 29th day of May, 1917. J. T. PENDLETON. 

Judge S. C. A. C. 
STATE OF GEORGIA. County of Fulton: 

I. Arnold Broyies, Clerk of the Superior Court of Fulton County. 
Georgia, do hereby certify that the w^ithin and foregoing is a true 
and correct copy of the application of Lucian Lamar Knight, et al, 
to become incorporated under the name and style of "GEORGIA 
HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION," and the order of court granting the 
same, as appears of file and record in this office. 

Witness my hand and seal of court this the 30th day of May, 1917. 

ARNOLD BROVLES. 
Clerk Superior Court, Fulton County. Georgia. 



Georgia IIlstokical Association 35 

Members of the Association 

Adams, B. T Macon 

Adams, Judge J. S Dublin 

Adamson, Miss Nellie Rome 

Adamson, Hon. Robert Fire Comm., New York, N. Y. 

Adamson, Hon. W. C CarroUton 

Adkins, T. A Vienna 

Alexander, H. A Atlanta 

Alfriend, Prof. K. T Milledgeville 

Allen, Mrs. H. D Milledgeville 

Alston, R. C Atlanta 

Andrews, Hon. Walter P Atlanta 

Arnett, A. M Sylvania 

Atwater, Capt. J. R Thomaston 

Austin, James W Atlanta 

Babnsen, Peter F Americus 

Bailey, W. A Toccoa 

Baker, Mrs. T. A Valdosta 

Banks, W. W ^.Atlanta 

Barker, Miss Tommie Dora Carnegie Library, Atlanta 

Barnett, E. A Washington 

Barnett, J. W - Athens 

Barrett, Wm. H Augusta 

Barrett, Hon. C. S Union City 

Barrow, Chancellor D. C Athens 

Bass, Miss Addie Clarkesville 

Battey, Dr. W. W., Jr Augusta 

Beeson, Mrs. J. L.__: Milledgeville 

Bell, Judge George L Atlanta 

Bell, R. C ^ Cairo 

Bell, Hon. Thos M._ Gainesville 

Bennett, Hon. Claude N Southern Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Benton, Mrs. W. N 454 Green St., Augusta 

Bernd, Miss Florence 197 Laurel Ave., Macon 

Berry, E. J Waycross 

Bickers, D. G - Athens 

Black, Mrs. Nellie Peters Atlanta 

Blackshear, Mrs. E. J Dublin 

Blassingame, Hon. Josiah Jersey 

Blount, Hon. W. A.- Pensacola. Fla. 

Bohler, Chas. S Box 1S7, Augusta i 

Boland, Dr. F. K AtlanU I 

Bond, Claude Toccoa j 

Booth, Hinton Statesboro 

Boston, John H Marietta 

Boylston, Albert Atlanta 



36 Second ANXUxVii Session 

Bradley, A. S Swainsboro 

Bradvvell, J. D Athens 

Bradwell, J. S Bainbridge 

Brand, L. M Lawrenceville 

Branham, Dr. A. I 2 N. Forsyth St., Atlanta 

Brantley, Hon. W. G Miinsey Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Brittain, Hon. M. L Atlanta 

Brock, P. F. Macon 

Brooks, Mrs. R. P Forsyth 

Brooks, Prof. R. P Athens 

Brown, Hon. Elijah A 720 Piedmont Ave., Atlanta 

Brown, Hon. E. T Atlanta 

Brown, Dr. George - Atlanta 

Brown, J. Epps Capitol, Atlanta 

Brown, Hon. J. J Atlanta 

Brown, Mrs. O. B Berlin. N. H. 

Brown, Hon. Joseph M Marietta 

Brown, Hon. Pope Hawkinsville 

Brown, .Miss Sally S 1100 Peachtree St., Atlanta 

Brown, W. J Jackson, r>Iiss. 

Broyles, Arnold Atlanta 

Broyles, Judge N. R Atlanta 

Bryan, Shepard Atlanta 

Bryan, Mrs. W. T Athens 

Burke, Col. J. F Atlanta 

Burwell, Hon. W. H Sparta 

Butler, Miss Bessie W Madison 

Caldwell, A. B Atlanta 

Calhoun, Dr. T. P Atlanta 

Callaway, Merrel P 2114 LeRoy Place, Washington, D. C. 

Campbell. J. B Atlanta 

Candler, Hon. C. M Atlanta 

Candler. Judge J. S Atlanta 

Candler, Chancellor W. A Atlanta 

Carithers, :Mrs. J. Y : Athens 

Carson, J. A. G Savannah 

Carswell. Mrs. Arabella Walker Waynesboro 

Carswell. George H Irwinton 

Carter, W. Colquitt Atlanta 

Chapman, Mrs. L. H Quitman 

Chappell, L. H Columbus 

Clark, Mr.s. W. C Covington 

Cobb, Judge A. J Athens 

Cobb, Her.'ichel P Savannah 

Cobb, Judge John A Americus 

Cobb, Lamar Phoenix. Ariz. 

Cobb, Mr.-^. Maude Barker State Library. Atlanta 



Georgia Historical Association 37 

Cobb, Hon. Zach Lamar El Paso, Texas 

Cobb, W. H ^ Elkins, W. Va. 

Cocke, Mrs. Sarah J Roanoke, Va. 

Cohen, J. Graves Capitol, Atlanta 

Coleman, F. W __Atlanta 

Collins, Byron R Blakely 

Collins, E. C Reidsville 

Connally, Dr. E. L Atlanta 

Connally, Mrs. E. L Atlanta 

Connally, T. W -Atlanta 

Cook, Mrs. S. A Milledgeville 

Coombs, H. H - Bainbridge 

Corput, Felix Cave Springs 

Corrigan, John, Jr 818 Riggs Bldg., Washington, D, C. 

Crane, Bryson - Augusta 

Crawford, Dr. \V. E Lincolnton 

Crenshaw, Dr. Hansell Atlanta 

Crum, Judge D. A. R Cordele 

Dailey, Miss Carrie L State Library, Atlanta 

Dame, Dr. Geo. A Inverness, Fla. 

Daniel, Prof. J. W. W Macon 

Daniel, L. J 45 Peachtree St., Atlanta 

Davidson, Mrs. J. L Quitman 

Davis, Mrs. Edwin S Bonnie Crest, Macon 

Davis, Miss Ola Ashburn 

Day, Thos. J Atlanta 

Dean, Hon. H. H Gainesville 

DeLoach, R. J. H Chicago, 111. 

DeLoach, Dr. A. G Grant Bldg., Atlanta 

Denmark. Miss Emma C Forsyth 

Derry, Prof. Jos. T Atlanta 

Dixon, W. N. D Fayetteville 

Dodson, Hon. W. A Americus 

Dooly, Miss Isma Atlanta 

Dorsey, Gov. Hugh M Atlanta 

Dozier, Miss Katherine Gainesville 

Duke, Prof. Jos. B Forsyth 

Dunlap, Col. S. C Gainesville 

Eagan, John J .\tlanta 

Edmondson, Miss M. V Meda 

Edwards, Judge M. C Daw.^on 

Ellis, Robert C Tifton 

Erwin, Mrs. A. S Athens 

Erwin, Howell C Athens 

Espy, INIrs. E. M Cordele 

Evans, Jud-e B. D Sander.^ville 

Evans. T. W Dublin 



38 ■ Second Annual Session 

Farmer, Mrs. Lula M.^ Thomson 

Folker, J. H Monroe 

Felton, Dr. H. E Cartersville 

Felton, Judge W. H Macon 

Fish, Judge Wm. H 925 Ponce de Leon Ave., Atlanta 

Fitzpatrick. Mrs. Z. I . __Thomasville 

Fleming, Hon. Wm. H Augusta 

Folsom, H. B Mt. Vernon 

For em an , Lauren Atlanta 

Fortson, B. E Athens 

Foster , Mrs. Sophie Lee Atlanta 

Franklin, Mrs. H. M Tennille 

Gaillard, Mrs. B. P. Dahlonega 

Garlington, Hon. Sam F Augusta 

Garrett, Prof. T. H : Augusta 

Gibson, Dr. J. T . Porterdciie 

Glenn, President G. R Dahlonega 

Gober, Judge Geo. F Atlant<i, 

Godard. G. D Milner 

Golucke, A. G Crawfordville 

Goodrich, L. P. Griffin 

Gordon, H. H Athens 

Gordon, G. A Savannah 

Gormon, O. D Atlanta 

Goss, Dr. I. H Athens 

Graham, John M Marietta 

Grantland. Seaton Griffin 

Gray, Prof. Claud Locust Grove 

Greene, Mrs. M. A Washington 

Grogan, Judge G. C Elberton 

Grice, Hon. Warren Macon 

Griggs, Mrs. J. M -Dawson 

Hall, L. C Milledgeville 

Hardaway, Mrs. R. H Newnan 

Hardeman, B. F Athens 

Hard&man. Judge J. L Macon 

Hardmau, Dr. L. G . Commerce 

Hard^ick. F. T Dalton 

Harris, J. C Cave Sprinc;s 

Harris, Lucian Atlanta 

Harris, Hon. N. E Atlanta 

Harris, Hon. W. J Federal Trade Comm., Washington, D. C 

Harrison, Geo. W Box 94r». Atlanta 

Harrison, Z. D Atlanta 

Hart, Judge J. C Atlanta 

Harvard, Prof. H. S Boys' High School. Atlanta 

Hays, Mrs. J. E I Montezuma 



Georgia Historical Association 39 

Henderson, Miss Lillian State Capitol, Atlanta 

Hermann, Dr. H. A Sandersville 

Herty, Dr. Chas. H New York. N. Y. 

Hill, Judge H. W Atlanta 

Hillj-er, Judge George Atlanta 

Hillyer, Wm. Kurd Atlanta 

Pline, H. J Rome 

Hinman, Dr. R. E Atlanta 

Hodgson, Harry Athens 

Holden, Judge H. IM Athens 

Holder, Hon. J. N Jefferson 

Hollingsworth, J. C Jr Sylvania 

Horton, M. C 604-5 Temple Court, Atlanta 

Horton, O. E 604-5 Temple Court, Atlanta 

Horton, Pre>ic'ertT O. R Milledgevilie 

Howard, Hon. W. S Decatur 

Howell, Hon. Clark Atlanta 

Hoyt, J. Wallace Rhode.^ Bldg., Atlanta 

Hughes, Hon. D. M Danville 

Hulsey, Hal Atlanta 

Humphries, Jos. W Atlanta 

Hunt, B. W Eatonton 

Hunt, Prof. H. R Powder Springs 

Hutcheson, J. B Jonesboro 

Huxford, l^'olks Homcrville 

Jack, Prof. T. H Oxford 

Jackson, M. Tsi Atlanta 

Jacobs, Dr. Jos Atlanta 

Jacobs, President Thornwell Atlanta 

Jaques, S. R Macon 

Jeffries. Judge T. H Atlanta 

Johnson, Prof. E. H Oxford 

Johnston, G. S Statesboro 

Jones, Chas. Edgeworth 2 24 9 Walton Way, Augusta 

Jones, G. Noble Savannah 

Jones, H. S Augusts 

Jones, J. Littleton Newnan 

Jones, Miss Nora : Elberton 

Jones. W. F Elberton 

Jones, Winfield P Atlanta 

Jordan, F. C Monticello 

Jordan, Hon. G. Gunhy Columbus 

Kelly, C. P Madison. Fla. 

Kent, Wm. B Alamo 

Kilpatrick, Prof. \V. H Columl^a University. New York City 

King. Gary J Rome 

King, J. N Rome 



40 Second xVxnual Session 

Kiser, Gordon P Atlanta 

Knight. Liician Lamar Atlanta 

Ladson, C. T Atlanta 

Lamar, Dr. Lucius . Dawson 

Landrum, L. M Atlanta 

Lane, Miss Annie M Washington 

Lane, Mrs. Julian C Statesboro 

Lane, Mrs. J. H Sylacauga, Ala. 

Langston, L. O Atlanta 

Larsen, Judge W. \V ^^Dublin 

Latimer, W. Carroll Atlanta 

Lawson, Hal Abbeville 

Lee, Hon. Gordon Chickamauga 

Lefurgey, J. J : Eton 

Lewis, Mrs. James F Thomaston 

Lewis, Mrs. Lena Felker Capitol, Atlanta 

Lindsey, Judge J. W Irwinton 

Linton, Miss Annie Athens 

Lippitt, A. J Albany 

Lipscomb, Mrs. M. A Athens 

Little, Hon. John D Atlanta 

Longley, Judge F. M . LaGrange 

Lokey, Mrs. Hugh M Atlanta 

Lott, Warren Waycross 

Love, Miss Loui&e O 49 Blue Ridge, Atlanta 

Lumpkin, Judge E. K Athens 

McAdoo, Malcolm R 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, N. Y. 

McCain, Prof. J. R Decatur 

McCallie, Hon. S. W Atlanta 

McCord, Jos. A Atlanta 

McDaniel, Hon. H. D Monro'j 

McDaniel, Sanders Atlanta 

Mcintosh, H. M Albany 

Maclntyre, W. I Thomasville 

McNeel, M. L Marietta 

McPherson, Dr. J. H. T Athens 

McWhorter, Judge Hamilton Athen.=j 

Maddox, Hon. Robt. F Atlanta 

Maun, Mrs. W. E Dalton 

Martin, Stiles A Atlanta 

Massengale, St. Elmo Atlanta 

Massey, J. D Columbus 

Matheson. President K. G Atlanta 

Matthews, J. E. F Thomaston 

Mf-adow, Judge D. W Elbertou 

Meldrim. Hon. Peter W Savannah 

Men. Rev. John D Athens 



Georgia Historical Association 41 

Mell, G. A Athens 

Men, Dr. P. H 251 E. 10th St.. Atlanta 

Mell. Mrs. P. H Atlanta 

Mell, Thos. S._ Athens 

Meyer, Cecil 4th Nafl Bk. Bldg., Atlanta 

Michael, M. G : Athens 

Miller, Hon. B. S Columbus 

Mitchell. Eugene M Atlanta 

Moncrief, Rev. A. J Barnesville 

Montgomery, Dr. C. J Augusta 

Moon, Prof. A. H Tiftou 

Moore, Mrs. Lee C Decatur 

Morris, Dean Sylvanus Athens 

Mott, Prof. J. P Brunwsick 

Murphy, Jno. E Atlanta 

Muse, Miss Jessie Girls' High School, Atlanta 

Nash, Gen. J. VanHolt Atlanta 

Newell, A. C. -Atlanta 

Newton, Prof. L. D Macon 

Nicolson, Mrs. W. P Atlanta 

Nottingham, Mrs. E. T Thomaston 

Nunnally, Mrs. W. H Monroe 

Nutting, James R Atlanta 

Oberdorfer, Eugene Atlanta 

Odum, Prof. H. W Athens 

Olive, Hon. Sam L Augusta 

Orme, Frank Atlanta 

Orr, J. K Atlanta 

Ottley, Mrs. J. K Atlanta 

Owen, Hon. Thomas M Montgomery, Ala. 

Park, Judge Frank Sylvester 

Park, Hon. O. A Macon 

Park, Walter G Blakely 

Parker, Oscar ^ Fairburn 

Parker, Mrs. T. C Macon 

Parks, Benj. G Waycross 

Parks, President M. M Milledscville 

Patterson, Judge T. E Griffin 

Payne. Prof. W. O Athens j 

Peabody, George Foster Saratoga Springs, N. Y. j 

Pearce, President H. J Gainesville j 

Persons, A. P ..Talbotton | 

Persons. Hon. G. Ogden Forsyth j 

Peoples, ]\Irs. Oscar T Cartersvillc j 

Phillips. Prof. C. E Boys' High School. Atlanta j 

Phillips, Prof. U. B Ann .Xrbor, Mich. 

Phillips, Judge W. L Louisville 



42 Second Annual Session 

Phinizy, Barrett Athens 

Phinizy, Billups Athens 

Phinizy, C. H Athens 

Pitts, Miss Kate C Toccoa 

Pittman, Mrs. C. E Commerce 

Porter, Mrs. A. L Sylacauga, Ala. 

Pound, President J. M Athens 

Powell, President R. H Valdosta 

Prescott, Miss Helen M 791 Peachtree St., Atlanta 

Quarterman, AV. H -Winder 

Quincey, Judge J. W. Douglas 

Rainey, E. L Atlanta 

Ramho, Mrs. S. D Marietta 

Reed, T. W Athens 

Reeves, D. M . Atlanta 

Reid, Miss Julia B McRae 

Raid, Prof. W. D - Eatonton 

Riley, Lawton 15G Juniper St., Atlanta 

Riley. S. Gayle Gainesville 

Ross, Mrs. Edgar A Stonehenge, Bluemont, Va. 

Rounsaville, Mrs. J. A. R Rome 

Rowe, Hon. H. J Athens 

Rowland, Dr. Dunbar Jackson. Miss. 

Rucker, Capt. J. H. Athens 

Rutherford, Miss Mildred Athens 

Sage, Mrs. I. Y Atlanta 

Samuel, P. T. Box 945, Atlanta 

Sanford, Hon. D. S Milledgeville 

Sasser, J. A Atlanta 

Saylor, Mrs. Addie B Adairsville 

Sell, Prof. E. S Athens 

Sellers, Judge A. V Baxley 

Sewell, Prof. H. L Cartersville 

Shelton, Prof. W. A Athens 

Sheppard, Hon. J. E Americus 

Shipp, Robt. L Moultrie 

Sibley, Mrs. Jennie Hart Union Point 

Sirmans, \V. E '. Waycross 

Slack. Dr. H. R LaGrange 

Slaton, Hon. John M Atlanta 

Smythe, Mrs. Leila Rains Augusta 

Snelling, Col. C. M Athens 

Spalding, Jack J Atlanta 

Spencer, Mrs. Saniuel__20l2 Massachusetts Ave., Washington, D. C. 

Stanley, Hon. H. M Atlanta 

Stark. Judge W. W Commerce 

Steed, Hon. \V. E 1 Butler 



Georgia Historical Association 43 

Stephens . Alex W Atla nta 

Stephens, Dr. R. G 1605 Candler Bldg.. Atlanta 

Stephenson, Mell R 505 Trust Co. of Ga. Bldg., Atlanta 

Stevens, W. W Mayfield 

Stewart, Prof. J. S Athens 

Strahan, Prof. C. M Athens 

Strickland, Judge J. J Athens 

Strickland, Mrs. R. F Griffin 

Sutton, C. E Washington 

Talley, J. X Macon 

Tate, L. E Tate 

Terrell, Hon. J. Render Greenville 

Therrell, D. M Atlanta 

Thomas, Mrs. E. A. (Ruby Felder Ray) 84 E. 11th St.. Atlanta 

Thomas, Mrs. Walter Blakeiy 

Thomas, Judge W. E Valdosta 

Thomas^on, Prof. J. F Bainbridge 

Thorn, Chas. C Atlanta 

Thornton, Mrs. A. E., Sr 611 Peachtree St., Atlanta 

Thornton, T. J LaGrange 

Torrence, Clayton Valentine Museum, Richmond, Va. 

Towery, James Gaston 145 McDonough St., Decatur 

Trammell, Hon. Paul B Dalton 

Turner, Hon. S. M Quitman 

Turner, W. R -^Vlillen 

Twitty, F. E --Brunswick 

University of Georgia Library . Athens 

Upson, Stephen C 2 Athens 

Varnedoe, Major J. O Valdosta 

Vereen, W. C Moultrie 

Vinson, Hon. Carl Milledgeville 

Vocelle, J. T St. Marys 

Wade, Judge Peyton L . Atlanta 

Walker, Chas. M Monroe 

Walker, Hon. Clifford Atlanta 

Walker, Mrs. J. L Waycros^ 

Walker, Hon. J. Randall Valdosta 

Walker, Mrs. Robert Lee Cuthbert 

Wardlaw, Mrs. J. F Lafayette 

Watkins, Hon. Edgar 4th Nat. Bk. Bldg.. Atlanta 

West, Judge John T ___Thom3on 

Whipple. Judge U. V Cordele 

White. Dr. H. C Athen.s 

White, Mrs. Julia A Athens 

White, Mrs. J. W Louisville 

White, Miss Willie S - Dalton 

Whitncr . Chas F Atlanta 



44 Second Annual Session 

Wiley, Judge C. M Macon 

Wilkiiic', Mrs. A. L Eastman 

Wilkins, Grant Atlanta 

Williams. Rev. M. S Oxford 

Wilson. Mrs. A. McD 436 Peachtree St.. Atlanta 

Wilson, Mrs. Walter S 221 E. Jones St., Savannah 

Wimpey, W. E Clarkston 

Wood, Mrs. James S Savannah 

Woodall, W. C . Columbus 

Woodruff, Dr. Caldwell Hyattsville, Md. 

Woodward. A. T Valdosta 

Woodward, President J. C College Park 

Woofter, Dr. T. J Athens 

Wright. Judge IMoses Rome 

Wright, W. C Newnan 

Wynn, Mrs. James O 81 Peachtree Circle, Atlanta 

Yancey. Hon. Hamilton Rome 

Yeomans, Hon. M. J Dawson 

Yew, S. B. Lavonia 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

THIRD ANNUAL SESSION 

OF THE 

GEORGIA HISTORICAL 
ASSOCIATION 



ATLANTA 

APRIL 12. 1919 



CONSTTTUTIOX OI^ TlfE GKOKGTA IlISTOrJCAL ASSOCTATIOX. 



Article I. 

The name of tliis society shall be The Georgia Historical Associa- 
tion. 

Artieie II. 

The o])ject of the Association shall be to promote the study of 
Georgia history. 

Article III. 

The Association shall consist of tv/o classes of members, to-wit: 
regular members, who shall pay an annual fee of two dollars 
($2.00); and sustaining members, who shall pay an annual fee of 
five dollars ($5.00). 

Article IV. 

The ofhcers shall be a president, two vice-presidents, a secretarj^- 
treasurer, and an executive council, consisting of the foregoing of- 
ficers and four other members elected by the Association. Ex-presi- 
dents shall also be members of the executive council. These officers 
shall be elected by ballot at each regular annual meeting of the 
Association. 

Article V. 

The Executive Council shall have charge of the general interests 
of the Association, including tlie election of members, the calling 
of meetings, the prepararion of a programme for the meetings, the 
determination of what papers and documents shall be published, and 
the appointment of a managing editor for any publications of the 
Association. 

Article VI. 

The Association shall meet annually on the first Sacurday of April 
in the City of Atlanta; but tlie Executive Council is empowered to 
change the time and place of rneeUng. Special meetings may be 
called by the Executive Council. Notice in writing and cop\' of the 
programme shall be sent by the secretary-treasurer to every mem- 
ber not less than ten days before the date of the meeting. Ten mem- 
bers shall constitute a quorum. 

Aiticle VII. 

This constitution may 1)0 amended at any annual meeting, notice 
of such amendment having bfcn given at the previous meeting, or 
the proposed amendment ha\ing received tlie approxal of the Ex- 
ecutive Council, 



Officers of the Georgia Historical Association 

President, Lucian LxVmar Knight, M.A., LL.D., Director State 
Department of Archives and History, Atlanta. 

Vice-President, Mrs. Maud B.uiker Cobb, State Librarian, 
Atlanta. 

Secretary-Treasurer, Robert P. Brooks, Ph.D., University of 
Georgia, Athens. 

Executive Council 

Lucian Lamar Knight. Mrs. Maud Barker Cobb. 

Robert P. Brooks. Miss Helen M. Prescott. 

Alfred C. Newell. 



Eligibility to Membership 

All persons interested in promoting the cause of G-eorgia His- 
tory are invited to become members of the Association. The 
dues are $2.00 per annum. No extra charge will be made for 
the Review. 



i^ 



TABLE OF contents: 



Page 

Minutes of the Third Annual Meeting 5 

Reports of Committees on War Activities in Georgia : 

Women's Patriotic Societies, Bij Mrs. II. M. Franklin 9 

Military Affairs, Bij Mr. P. F. Brock 1.1 

Agriculture During the War, By Prof. R. P. Brooks 15 

Annual Address of the President, Dr. L. L. Knight 26 

The University of Georgia in the Great War, By Professor 

W. D. Hooper 32 

The Georgia School of Technology in the Great War, 

By Professor W. G. Perry 43 

The Georgia Historical Pevieir 48 

Members of the Association 51 



PROCEEDINGS AND ADDRESSES 

OF THE 

THIRD ANNUAL MEETING 

OF THE 

Georgia Historical Association 

Atlanta, April 12, 1919 



MINUTES. 

The third annual meeting of the Georgia Historical Association 
was called to order at 10:30 o'clock, Saturday morning, April 
12th, 1919, in the Senate Chamber of the Capitol. President 
Lucian L. Knight in the annual presidential address, printed 
elsewhere in the Proceedings, reminded the members that one of 
the leading ends which the founders of the Association had in 
mind had been accomplished in the creation last year of the 
Department of Archives and History. He gave a brief account 
of his work as Director in getting the new Department properly 
organized and functimiing. Mr. Knight also mentioned inci- 
dentally that the other plan of the Association, that looking to 
the establishment of a (|uarterly, was nearing realization. The 
greater part of the address was devoted to the life and services 
of Abraham Baldwin, whose burial place Mr. Knight recently 
discovered in Rock Creek Cemetery, in Washington City. 

•Following the President's address two papers were presented 
by Professor W. D. Hooper and Professor W. G. Perry, respec- 
tively, having to do with the war services of the University of 
Georgia and the Georgia School of Technology. Both of these 
valuable contributions to the history of Georgia during the war 
are herein printed. 

A number of interesting matters came up for consideration in 
the part of the meeting given to "business." 

At the annual meeting of 1918 the President appointed a series 
of committees to collect data and prepare reports on the various 
phases of war activities in the state. Reports were presented by 
Mrs. H. ]\r. Franklii). on the work of the Women's Patriotic 
Societies; by Mr. P. F. l>rock on the Military Aspects of the 
subject; and by Professor R. P. Brooks on tlie history of Agri- 
culture in Georgia during the war. These papers are printed 



6 Third Annual Session 

in another part of the Proceedings. Mrs. Ruby Ray Felder 
Thomas, Chairman of the Committee on Social Life in Georgia, 
made a brief statement showing that the committee is at work, 
though not yet ready to report. 

The report of the Executive Council showed that the Council 
had held two meetings during the year, as required by the Con- 
stitution. Only two items of the report need be mentioned here. • 
One of these was a recommendation that the Constitution be 
amended so as to provide for two Vice-Presidents instead of one, ; 
and that two additional members be added to the Council. \ 
These amendments were adopted. The other item had to do \ 
with the establishment of a quarterly magazine to be devoted l 
to Georgia History. The meeting adopted the recommendation 
of the Council to establish a quarterly, the first number of which 
is to appear on January 1st, 1920. (See page 48). I 

The report of the Secretary-Treasurer, given below in full, | 

showed that the membership of the Association is remaining in ? 

the neighborhood of 450. During the year $300 was invested in 
Liberty Bonds. The total cash assets were given as $425.95. 

Under the head of new business, Mr. T. W. Reed, of the Uni- 
versity, made a stirring talk on the need of greater historical ' 
activity in Georgia and appealed for a wider popular interest | 
in state history. He suggested that a committee be appointed to I 
work for a larger membership in the Association. On motion, f 
the President appointed such a committee, consisting of Mr. T. I 
W. Reed, Chairman, Mr. C. C. McGehee, and Miss Tommie Dora * 
Barker. 

A motion was passed directing the President to appoint a com- 
mittee on Program and Arrangements for the next annual meet- 
ing. Mr. A. C. Newell was appointed Chairman, and with him 
were associated ]\Iiss Carrie L. Dailey and Professor T. H. Jack. ♦ 

The election of officers was the last matter of business to come j ; 

up for consideration. On motion the President appointed Mr. • ; 

T. W. Reed, Dr. J. R. :\rcCain, and Prof. R. P. Brooks as a com- I 

mittee to bring in nominations. The following were nominated I 

and duly elected as the officers for the next year : Judge Andrew ? 

J. Cobb, of Athens, President; Mr. A. C. Newell, of Atlanta, ; 

First Vice-President ; Mr. Orville A. Park, of Macon, Second l 

Vice-President ; Professor W. 0. Payne, of Athens, Secretary- ] 

i 



I 



Georgia Historic.vl Association 7 

Treasurer, Membei^s of Council, in addition to the above officers : 
Mrs. Maud Barker Cobb, Miss Helen M. Prescott, and ]\Ir. C. C. 
McGehee, of Atlanta ; and Mr. P. F. Brock, of Macon. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-TREASURER OF THE 
GEORGIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

At the time of the last annual meeting, April 6th, 1918, there 
remained, in the Treasury a balance of $81.12 in cash, while the 
Association possessed in addition one Liberty Bond of $100. 
During the current fiscal year, a total of $438.08 has been re- 
ceived from dues and dividends on the Liberty Bond. The Asso- 
ciation subscribed and paid for during the year three Liberty 
Bonds, totaling $300. A cash balance of $23.95 remains on 
hand, to which should be added the $400 invested in Bonds. The 
itemized statement below shows in detail the expenditures during 
the year. 

The membership of the Association is now 444. Since the last 
meeting, we have lost five members by death, Hon. Seaten Grant- 
land, Hon. J. C. Hart, Dr. R. E. Hinman, Mrs. M. A. Lipscomb, 
and Dr. P. ET. Mell. There have also been eight resignations. The 
following eighteen new members have been added to the roll : 
Mr. L. L. Brown, Jr., Fort Valley ; Mr. H. B. Erniinger, Jr., 
Macon ; Mr. John W. Grant, Atlanta ; Miss Cleo Ilearon, Agnes 
Scott College, Decatur; Professor C. J. Heatwole, Athens; Mr. 
Harold Hirsch, Atlanta ; Mr. J. K. Jordan, Atlantfi ; Mrs. Jos, R. 
Lamar, Atlanta; Mr. G. W. Legwen, Augusta; Mrs. H. II. ]\Ic- 
Call, Atlanta; Mr. C. C. McGehee, Atlanta; Professor Harold 
D. Meyer, Athens; Professor S. Y. Sanford, Athens; Mr. ]\Iell 
R. Stephenson, Atlanta; Miss C. Mildred Thompson, Yassar Col- 
lege, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. ; Mr. Edgar Turner, Atlanta ; ]\Ir. T. 
C. Whitner, Atlanta; and Prof. Frank T. Long, Sutherland, FJa. 

Respectfully submitted, 
R. P. Brooks, 

Secretary-Treasurer. 



8 Third Annual Session 

STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND DISBL IISEMENTS OF THE AS- 
SOCIATION FOR THE YEAH 1918-1919. 
Receipts. 

April 10, 1918. Balance $ 81.12 

Received from dues to April 1, 1919- 435.10 
Dividend on Liberty Bond 4.98 



$521.20 
Disbursements. 
1918 
March 29 — Rent P. O. Box $ 1.00 

Stamps 1.00 

April 1 — Check No. 33, T. C. Erwin, return of dues 2.00 

April 8 — Stamps, $1.00; April 17, Stamps, $1.00 2.00 

Check No. 34, R. P. Brooks, expenses April 

meeting ^ 8.30 

April 9 — Check No. 35, McGregor Co., printing 9.50 

April 16 — Check No. 36, Miss Nellie Adamson, expenses 

April meeting 5.02 

April 18 — Check No. 37, Liberty Bonds 200.00 

April 22 — ^Stamps ; 1.00 

April 26 — Check No. 38, T. H. Jack, expenses April meeting 8.44 

April 29 — Check No. 39, Stamps 10.00 

May 1 — Check No. 40, D. Knight, clerical help 1.00 

May 6 — Check No. 41, McGregor Co., printing 5.75 

Che3k No. 42, Stamps 2.00 

May 31— Check No. 43, Stamps . 1.00 

June 7 — Check No. 44, Miss F. M. Shouse, clerical help__ 1.50 

July 29 — rCheck No. 45, Stamps 10.00 

July 31— Check No. 46. P. O. Box, $1.00; clerical help. 25c 1.25 

Aug. 7 — Check No. 47, McGregor Co., printing 79.20 

Oct, 2 — Check No. 49, Stamps 1.00 

Oct. 8 — Check No. 50, R. P. Brooks, expenses October 

meeting 7.99 

Check No. 51, Liberty Bond 100 00 

1919 

Jan. 2 — Check No. 52, P. O. Box 1.00 

Jan. 13 — Check No. 53, Stamps 2.00 

Feb, 7 — Check No. 54. R. P. Brooks, expenses trip to At- 
lanta in interest of quarterly 11.50 

•Check No. 55. Stamps 1.00 

Feb. 28 — Check No. 56, G. .M. Broadhurst, clerical help__ 4.80 

March 24 — Check No. 57. Stamps 15.00 

Check No. 58, P. O. Box 1.00 

$495.25 

Balance 25.95 



is^irr ' $521.20 



Georgia Histortcal Association 9 

Report of the Committee on the Work of the Women's 

Patriotic Societies in Georgia During 

the Great War 

Mrs. Herbert M. Franklin, Chairman, Tennille, Ga. 

Throughout the World War, Georgia women have answered 
**Ready!'^ to eveiy call for patriotic service, and a wonderful 
amount of work has been accomplished. 

Last year the Georgia United Daughters of the Confederacy 
had as their special work the endowment of three beds in the 
American Military Hospital at Neuilly, France, where the Gen- 
eral Organization of the U. D. C. supported seven wards of 
70 beds. 

The Alexander H. Stephens Bed, the John B. Gordon Bed,. the 
Shatteen Mitchell Bed were endowed by Georgia Daughters of 
the Confederacy, the last mentioned supported by a daughter of 
the Confederate soldier for whom the bed was named. 

The U. D. C. are making efforts to secure names and records 
of all soldiers who are lineal descendants of Confederate soldiers. 
A Chairman has been appointed for this work, and a large num- 
ber of records has been secured. The work will be continued 
until the list is completed. Georgia U. D. C. are collecting 
books of true Southern History to be placed in a permanent 
library in London. Since the war we feel that this work is 
most important as the South has been misrepresented in many 
cases, and books which give justice to the South should be at 
hand. 

A $50,000 Educational Fund, called ''The Hero Fund," 
is being raised by the U. D. C. as a memorial to those men who 
gave their lives for our country in the World War. Etl'orts are 
being made to raise the entire amount for investment in the 
Victory Loan. 

During the past year the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion endowed a Memorial Bed in an American hospital in Paris, 
the Crawford W. Long Bed. A fund is being raised to rebuild 
the French village, Tilloloy, and to establish a chicken farm in 
its vicinity. 

The State Federation of Women's Clubs has done a wonderful 
amoimt of war relief work for our soldiers at home and abroad. 
Members of the three oreranizations have served as leadinsr chair- 



10 Third Annual Session 

men in Red Cross, Liberty Loan, Council of Defense and other 
war organizations. All have contributed towards hospital gar- 
ments, knitted articles, surgical dressings, Red Cross Fund, 
cantonment service, hut furnishings, magazines, books, French 
and Belgian orphans, Y. M. C. A. Fund, United War Work, and 
various war relief funds. All have practiced conservation and 
lent earnest cooperation in every possible manner. We have 
served as members of the National Speakers' Bureau, conducted 
rallies in the interest of Red Cross, Liberty Loans, War Savings 
Stamps, United War Work Campaign, etc., and will continue 
our patriotic service of all kinds as long as we are needed. 

As soldiers of the home trenches, patriotism has been put to 
the test, and the women of Georgia have proven worthy repre- 
«entativa«? of the Old and the New South. 



tt .-•« 



Georgia Historical Association 11 

Report of the Committee on Georgia's Military Record 
During the Great War 

By P. P. Brock^ Chairman. 

The Committee on Military Activities herewith reports what 
has heen done in the line of collecting historical data since your 
last meeting. The plan suggested when the committee was ap- 
pointed had in view the preservation of letters written by sol- 
diers, especially those in the American Expeditionary Force, 
newspaper clippings touching on military subjects, diaries kept 
by officers and men in the field, and such other records and doc- 
uments as would contribute to a clear understanding of the mil- 
itary events in which American troops, and especially Georgia 
troops took part. 

At the outset it was found that few people in possession of 
letters from men at the front were willing to surrender them for 
this or any other purpose. Such letters had a decided sentimen- 
tal value. It was also found a difficult thing to obtain copies of 
such letters, though after some effort we procured copies of 
several of real value. This left us with the newspapers as almost 
our only source from which to obtain these materials. 

Availing ourselves of this advantage we have collected clip- 
pings, reports, and letters dealing with a somewhat wide range 
of topics. The dailies of the larger cities w^ere the only papers 
to publish a considerable number of them. The Macon Tele- 
graph probably led them all in this work. This is accounted for 
by the fact the three Macon companies, the Volunteers, Hussars, 
and Floyd Rifles were not only made up largely of men from 
that community but also served with the popular Rainbow Di- 
vision, and consequently were in the field of active operations 
much longer than any other Georgia men, except those wlio hap- 
pened to be with the Regular Army at the outbreak of war. It 
is likewise true that these companies were the only purely Geor- 
gia units to take part in the fighting, so far as I am informed. 
Large numbers of men from this state engaged in figliting, but 
they were with organizations composed of men from iiuuiy states. 
The 82nd Division is an illustration. The enlisted men of the 
division came largely from the East, while most of its officers 
were Georgia men. 

From one hundred and fifty to two hundred clippings from 



12 Third Annual Se-sion 

the papers have been preserved. The larger number of these 
are letters from soldiers while in France. They touch on a great 
number of subjects, and furnish more or less information of 
value. However, their chief worth lies in the fact they tell the 
story of the mental attitude of the soldier tow^ards the game he 
was playing, how it impressed him, and how others were affected 
by the events of the Great Crisis. 

Besides letters we have the following papers of special inter- 
est: a copy of The New York Times, giving a list of the Ameri- 
can divisions in France the day the armistice was signed, the 
units of each division, and the names of the officers commanding 
these units, as well as the location of the division at the time the 
last gun was fired ; two copies of Stars and Stripes, which is the 
official publication of the American Expeditionary Force; a 
clipping from The Army and Navy Journal containing General 
Pershing's official report of the field operations of the American 
forces; extracts from The Army and Navy Journal with pub- 
lished orders setting forth the wonderful work of the 1st, 2nd, 
27th, 30th, and 42nd divisions, these orders having been pro- 
mulgated by commanders of corps or armies wdth which the 
divisions operated; a recent communication from General Wal- 
ter A. Harris to The Macon News, in which he reviews the long 
standing quarrel between the National Guard and the Regular 
Army, and with particular reference to the effect of this trouble 
on our military preparations and plans ; a diary of a member of 
the 151st Machine Gun Bn., giving the marches and counter- 
marches of that unit ; and a copy of an extract from The London 
Times, in which Col. Reppington, the noted English military 
critic, pays a high tribute to the all round effective work of the 
American troops. The collection contains other papers of equal, 
and perhaps greater interest, but I merely mention these to 
show^ something of the variety of sources from which we have 
drawn. 

We have in our file eight or ten letters, as well as copies of 
some fifteen letters, all worth preserving. Along with these 
should be mentioned an authentic copy of a translation of a 
diary of a German officer, which gives the most vivid picture 
of the demoralization and disintegration goinc: on in the enemy 
forces during the retreat from Belgium in October 1018: also 



r 



Georgia Historical Association 13 

quite a list of documents issued by the American General Staff, 
and the enemy's General Staff touching the political fermenta- 
tion then taking place in the Central Empires. 

The most interesting if not the most valuable document ob- 
tained is an authentic copy of a translation of numerous reports 
made by the German Staff' on the St. Mihiel battle. These re- 
ports cover the day of the battle and the observations preceding 
it. The papers were captured by the American forces. They 
give a rather complete story of the position, plans, and strength 
of the enemy. In our list is also included one daily report of the 
Staff of the 22nd Division while it was in the thick of the Ar- 
gonne. It gives in summary the previous losses of the division, 
and its detailed pxperience for that one day. To this must be 
added the exhaustive report on the work of this division in the 
Argonne offensive, this report ha\dng been made to the First 
Army Conference on February 3rd, 1919, by Major General 
George B. Duncan, who commanded it in that fight. 

The documents I have mentioned were sent to Judge A. L. 
Miller by his son, Lieutenant-Colonel Troup Miller, at that time 
a member of the staff' of the 82nd Division, later a member of 
the staff of the First Army Corps, and now a member of the 
staff of the First American Army of Occupation. It is by the 
courtesy of Judge Miller that I am able to present these papers 
to you. It is from the letters of Lieutenant-Colonel Miller that I 
learn that General Lindsey, a Georgia man, commanded the 
brigade credited with the most spectacular work in that section 
of the battle front. The work of this brigade proved the undoing 
of the enemy in that region. 

A copy of the report of Provost Marshal General Crowder 
is included in the list. This is a storehouse of information. It 
is the history of the work of the niost efficient department of th.e 
National government. Political infiiK^nce and political ex- 
pediency were terms unknown to the men administering it. The 
report is crammed with vital statistics on our Georgia men. 

All these papers have been turned over to the Department of 
Archives and History for preservation. 

The data we submit shows that (Georgia made her contribution 
to the sacrifice. A goodly numl)(»r of lier sons now sleep on the 
battlefields of France. ^lany more carry with them the marks 



14 Third Annual Session 

of shell and gas. Not a few wear decorations marking the offi- 
cial recognition of courageous work under fire. The Georgia 
unit, the 151st Machine Gun Battalion, proved the eciual of the 
best in the Regular Army. It was commanded by Major Cooper 
D. Winn, Jr., of Macon, and was permitted to operate as an 
independent unit, a distinction accorded to no other battalion 
in the Rainbow Division. 

A word should be said as to the value of the various classes of 
data which we have collected. The newspaper reports always 
carry with them their own discount. Letters wTitten by the 
soldiei^ may be taken to be reliable so far as they go, except 
that there was a well recognized tendency, when waiting to home 
folks, to say nothinsr about their unplea^sant expeinences. They 
could write nothing except such as the censor would pass. The 
most valuable information was excluded. The official dispatches 
published daily in the American newspapers are not taken as 
telling the whole truth, and they are not by any means to be 
relied on where they purport to cover the ground. ^Modern 
times never before saw governments with such unlimited author- 
ity as those existing in the belligerent countries during the con- 
tinuance of this war. These governments were creatures of 
politics. Their fate sometimes rested on the news brought by 
these dispatches. Wise military policy required that many things 
be not published. Both considerations materially discount the 
daily news brought from Europe, chiefly as being but half com- 
plete, but even at times as being inaccurate. Information ob- 
tained from a considerable number of men who engaged in the 
fighting convinces me that the current newspaper accounts of 
the Great Conflict are less reliable than contemporary newspa- 
per accounts of other wars. 



Georgia Historical Association 15 

Report on the Effect of the Great War on Agriculture 

in Georgia 

By R. P. Brooks^ Chairman. 

War times usually bring prosperity to all producers of neces- 
sary commodities and to the laboring population. Mobilization 
withdraws millions of workers from productive enterprise, there- 
by causing a shortage of labor and a tendency towards decreased 
production in the countries affected by the war. Hence wages 
and prices rise. Men living in the open and in the hard condi- 
tions of camp life not only produce nothing but consume more 
food and clothes than in civilian life. Furthermore, the great 
consumption of v/ealth and labor in building operations, in tiie 
making of munitions, and in transportation services, still further 
accentuates the rise in prices. The principal difficulty that con- 
fronts the farmers, and, indeed, all producers in war times, is 
shortage of labor. This shortage is met, in part, by the longer 
hours that laborers are called upon the work, by the impetus 
afforded to scientific methods in production, by the increased use 
of labor-saving machinery, the employment of women and 
children, and the shifting of labor from the production of non- 
essentials to the production of necessary articles of consumption. 
Since labor is usually the most expensive element in production, 
the rise in the price of labor naturally subtracts largely from the 
nominal profits of enterprise, as does the rise in price of all the 
other factors entering into the production of goods. These facts 
must be borne in mind in imputing abnormal profits to pro- 
ducers. And yet, after all deductions have been made, the evi- 
dence goes to show that producers, farmers along with the rest, 
have greatly profited by war conditions. 

Confining our view to the agricultural interest of Georgia, we 
see all around us signs of this prosperity. Real estate men re- 
port an exceptionally active demand for farming land, though 
the value of land has been steadily advancing. Many a land- 
poor planter has been able to dispose of comparatively unpro- 
ductive holdings at high prices; many a tenant farmer has be- 
come a landowner, oftentimes paying cash for his farm. Bank- 
ers and merchants all over the state report that debts of long 
standing have been paid; while mortgages have been removed in 



! 

!! 
16 Third Annual Session 

large numbers. There has been an enormous amount of money 
invested by farmers in permanent improvements in their homes 
and in productive farm equipment, such as work animals, high 
grade cattle and swine, and machinery. The problems confront- 
ing automobile dealers has been to get enough machines to supply 
the demand. Furniture house and merchants handling clothes 
and shoes have done a fine business. Insurance agents have been 
in clover. 

I. DIVERSIFICATION. 

The basis on which the present prosperity rests is to be found 
in the strikiTig movement in Georgia in recent years towards a f 

diversified agriculture. Had it been necessary for the farmers 
to buy, as in former years, the bulk of their food- and feed-stuffs, 
they would have made nothing from cotton at thirty cents. Liv- 
ing at home and having cotton as more of a surplus crop than 
heretofore, is the secret of the good times. 

Some interesting facts are brought to light when the situation 
is examined in detail. In the first place, there has been a note- 
worthy decrease in the production of cotton. It so happened 
that in the year the Great War began, 1914, the cotton crop was 
the greatest in the history of the staple, 16,134,930 bales. For 
the four following years the average annual production was 
11,411,000 bales, or a decrease of nearly 30 per cent.^ The price 
of cotton in December, 1914, was 6.8 cents." Low prices pre- 
vailed through the planting season of 1915, being only 9 cents on 
May 1st. A smaller production was therefore inevitable. Farm- 
ers began to plant food-stuft"s in large (juantities and there has 
been no backward step since, the extremely high price of cotton, 
28.5 cents on May 1, 1918, having resulted in a crop of only 
11,700,000 bales last year. In Georgia in 1914 the greatest crop 
in the history of the state was raised, 2,718,037 bales. Since that 
year the annual production has fallen to 1,912,000, or nearly 30 
per cent, less than in 1914. That is to say, Georgia curtailed her 
production of cotton in almost exactly the same ratio as was wit- 
nessed for the whole cotton planting area. The crop of 1918, 
however, was 2,100,000 bales, one of tlie largest crops in our his- 



1 I'. S. I)»'i)artiiitMit of AuM-iculfnre. Monthly Crop Kcports. 1!>14-1;)1S. 
-Monthly Crop Heport. DertMiiber. IIU.S. 



Georgia Historical Association 



17 



tory. Had this crop been sold in December at the price then 
current, 27.6 cents, it would have brought .$289,800,000. The 
2,718,037 bale crop of 1914 was worth, at 6.8 cents, $90,413,258, 
or less than one-third as much. 

While there has thus been a sharp decline in cotton produc- 
tion, other crops have grown by leaps and bounds, as can be 
seen from, an examination of the following table •} 

TABLE SHOWIXG THE GROWTH OF DIVERSIFICATION 
IN GEORGIA, 1910-1918. 



o 

Si 


;r 


It 


•~ 


t- 





56, 000J64, 9 5 0162,0 0172,0 00168, 00' 2Z 
I 1,900| l,496j l,534j 1.600 2,668; 40 
1 1,694] 3, 5751 3,808; 2,074i 3,631 114 
i 338| 345! 460i 612! 615] 82 
1 780| 1,040! 900i 1,596! 1, 6101106 
I 6,7151 8,075| 7, 520:il, 625111, 960; 78 



Corn, bu. _i39,374- 

Tobacco, lbs. _ _! 1,485 

Wheat, bu. | 752 

Hay, tons _ _ _! 261 
Irish Po., bu. _ _i 886 

Sweet Po., bu. _ _j 7,426 

Oats, bu. I 6,199 | 9, 000|17, 648116, 7.70 = 10, 400il2, 000 33.3 

Peanuts, bu | 2,569 i I 1 1,240! 9,43510,136 200-- 

Ootton, bales _ -| 1,992 j 2,718! 1,909! 1>821| 1,820; 2,100! 22.7 

Value of all crops, 1910 — $226,595,436; 1918 — $460,428,000. 

These statistics show an astonishing agricultural revolution. 
It is a very difficult matter to double the output of any crop in 
a short time, but the feat has been accomplished in Georgia, and 
that, too, in a direction of fundamental importance. Of the 
essential food-stuffs, wheat and potatoes, there has been an in- 
crease of more than one hundred per cent, in four years. xVnd 
of feed-stuffs, hay, oats, and peanuts, a really prodigious in- 
crease. 

Some of these items deserve particular comment. The ad- 
vance of 23 per cent, in corn production is more significant than 
it looks. Georgia was already a heavy corn-producing state, so 
that the increase, though absolutely hirge, does not make an im- 
pressive showing when stated in terms of percentages. The fact 
that the state rose from seventeenth to twelfth place as a coru- 



M'oinpiUM! from the ^[()ntllly (."rop Koport>< mixI froin rlio ('ciisiis of lOK). 

2 In every <;i^e the tiiruies ;ht v'iven in tlions.iiKls. (I(K> h.-iii^' oiiiilied. 

3 Coiiipiiied with the crop of I'.tlO. 

In the culurini of iierconta^re of increase the production in r.»14 is cotnpar»Ml 
with that of VMS. 



18 Third Annual SeftSion 

producer in the four years, altlioug-h there v/as everywhere a 
great stimulus to increased production, reveals the importance 
of the movement. 

Tobacco culture had already gotten a foothold in Georgia be- 
fore the war began. At first it was raised principally in south- 
west Georgia, being one of the crops which farmers began early 
to take up in anticipation of the boil w^eevil. During the war 
period tobacco culture spread v/ith the spread of the boll weevil, 
and is now to be found all over the southern portion of the state. 
In the southeastern section it has largely replaced the sea island 
cotton, which was seriously crippled by the weevil in 1917 and 
1918, the production having declined from 48,000 bales in 1917 
to 22,000 bales in 1918.' 

Peanuts are another crop the beginning of which is attribu- 
table to the boll weevil. War conditions and the growing hog 
industry, however, gave a tremendous impetus to this new^ crop. 

In general it may be said that while all parts of the state have 
participated in the revolution, south Georgia has led in the move- 
ment tow^ards greater diversification. It was a coincidence that 
the coming of the boll weevil and of the war synchronized in that 
part of the state. Scarcely perceptible in 1914, by 1915 the 
weevil had covered the southwestern comer of Georgia and in 
1916 had spread over the entire coastal plain, even getting con- 
siderably above the fall line of the rivers.- Diversification would, 
therefore, have had to come any way; the effect of the war was 
to hasten the movement. 

Another important item going to swell the volume of Georgians 
production of food- and feed-stuffs is cotton seed products. In 
1917, the last yeRv for which complete figures are available, 
$32,599,000 gallons of crude oil were made ; 366,000 tons of cake 
and meal; and 180,000 tons of hulls. The total value of these 
products was $60,106,000. 

On the animal husbandry side of farming there has also been 
noteworthy progress. Exact figures are difficult to obtain. As 
typical of what has been going on, it may be said that last year, 
through the exertions of the County Agents of the College of 
Agriculture alone there were imported into Georgia for breeding 



1 Monthly Crop Pt-port. D('<'eni])pr. IDIS. 

2 U. S. I>opartnieiit at Airrlculture, Atlns of American Agriculture. Part V, 
Section A. Cotton, p. 1.',. Washington, IDIS. 



Georgia IIistoricai. Association 19 

purposes, 142 beef bulls, 852 beef cows, 156 dairy bulls, 1,018 
dairy cows, 4,407 bogs, 718 mares, and 943 sheep. Other agencies 
no doubt were responsible for still further importa.tions of thifi 
character. The most important development along this line is 
the growth of the pork industry. The following table shows the 
facts :^ 

TABLE SHOWING THE GROAVTIl IN THE NU:MnER OF 

HOGS IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN GEORGIA 

AND THE PRICE PER HEAD. 

Year U. S. Price per head Ga. Price per head 

1914 50,9332 $ 10.40 1,945 $ 8.20 

1915 64,618 9.87 2,042 8.00 

1916 67,766 S.40 2,348 7.70 

1917 67,503 11.75 2,585 9.00 

1918 71,374 19.54 2,766 14.50 

1919 75,587 22.04 3,040 17.50 

Since 1914 the increase of swine in Georgia has been 56 per 
cent., as against 48 per cent, for the United States as a whole. It 
should also be noted that, while the price of Georgia-raised hogs 
advanced 113 per cent, per head, the price of the local product 
is still considerably under that for the whole country. There 
has, however, been a great improvement in weight and (juality 
of Georgia hogs, due to the use of better breeding animals and 
to the abundance of feed, now being raised. The pork industry 
has assumed such proportions in the state as to lead to the estab- 
lishment of packing houses in Moultrie, Statesboro, Macon, Tif- 
t^n, and Waycross. 

Anxiety is felt lest, with the resumption of normal conditions, 
there should be a return in Georgia to the former one-crop sys- 
tem. Some people believe that, while the return of the sohliei-s to 
the farm and factory and the cessation of war demands will 
naturally bring about a fall of prices in other respects, the etVect 
of peace will be to increase the demand for cotton, thus tending 
to keep the price abnormally higli. Slioidd this prove to be the 
case, farmers, it is held, will tend to curtail the production of 
feed-stuffs and increase the production of cotton, depending to 
a degree, as heretofore, on other sections for food- and feed- 
stuffs. The present writer thinks that this view is to some extent 
sound It is unlikely that cotton will fall to the pi'c-war price 

t Conipilf'd froui tlu^ .Monthly Crop IteiK)rts. 
-*0<)0 omitted. 



20 Third Annual Session 

for a long time to come. It was thirteen years after the close of 
the Civil War before the 1860 level was reached, and during the 
interval the farmers, who had perforce raised their own supplies 
during the war, left off diversification as soon as the market for 
cotton became again active. On the other hand it may be pointed 
out that conditions now are hardly comparable to those of the 
post-Civil War period. It seems probable that we have entered 
upon a period of permanently higher prices. It is extremely 
doubtful whether labor will ever again drop to the 1914 basis, 
and to the extent that it maintains a higher level, prices will re- 
main high. The higher prices are, the greater the inducement 
will be for Georgia farmers to continue diversification, both to 
protect themselves from excessive prices and to realize a profit 
from products other than cotton. Furthermore, the boll weevil 
will probably make it impossible for south Georgia to abandon 
divei'sification ; and even in that portion of the cotton belt which 
has so far been immune, experts believe the weevil can be counted 
on to destroy the cotton crop one year in four. 

The great directing agency behind the recent agricultural de- 
velopments in Georgia is the College of Agriculture of the Uni- 
versity, acting with other state agencies and with the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture of the United States government. A far- 
reaching organization has been perfected to extend to the farm- 
ers the benefit of scientific knowledge. In every county of Geor- 
gia there is an agent of the College, whose salary is paid, in part, 
from funds of the United States administered by the College and, 
in part, by the county. The activities of the Extension Division 
are too numerous for more than a brief reference here. The 
county agents and specialists traveling from Athens advise the 
farmei-s in all matters of agricultural methods, the erection of 
farm buildings, the installation of water and lighting systems, 
the purchase of farm machinery; the purchase and care of live- 
stock; the eradication of hog cholera and cattle tick, testing of 
dairy cattle, pruning and spraying of fruit trees, and the like. 
War or no war changes were bound to have followed such a 
thorough system of education as the Georgia farmers have been 
getting. A good illustration of the activity of the College is the 
organization of Boys' Pig Clubs. There are now in Georgia a 
thousand such clubs, with a total membership oC about 15,000. 



Georgia Historical Association 21 

Each member must have a pure bred sow. These clubs have 
more than any other agency been responsible for the develop- 
ment of the hog industry in the state. 

n. LAND. 

The war period has witnessed a sharp rise in the value of land. 
The price of farm land is determined to a large extent by the 
value of the crops produced on it, though other factors are to 
be taken into account, such as the location of the land with refer- 
ence to markets, its nearness to railroads or improved highways, 
and the activity of the demand for farms. The rise in value has 
by no means been uniform in all portions of the state. Corre- 
spondents vary widely in their statements; some say there has 
been no appreciation, others give 25 per cent, as a fair estimate ; 
still others go as high as 200 and 250 per cent. The Bureau of 
Crop Estimates gives what is probably a fair, conservative esti- 
mate '} 

PRICE OF FARM LANDS IN GEORGIA. 

Average value of poor plow lands 

Average value of good plow lands 

Average value of all plow lands ' 

According to the Census of 1910 the average value of all farm 
lands in Georgia was $13.74, which seems to indicate a general 
rise of more than 100 per cent, since 1910. 

ni. LABOR. 

Labor conditions in Georgia have been bad for the employers 
of farm labor but good for the workers themselves. The wide- 
spread scarcity of labor has been due, in part, to the superior 
attraction of the munitions making centres, and, in part, to the 
intra-state movement from the farm to the cantonments and ship- 
building plants. Georgia labor conditions have been seriously 
affected by migration of negroes to the north. A study of the 
subject recently published by the United States Department of 
Labor" shows that the area principally concerned in Gt'orgia was 
the southwestern section. There hiis been comparatively little 



1916 


1917 


1918 


$16.00 


$18.00 


$20.00 


32.00 


35.50 


40.00 


24.00- 


27.50 


28.00 



1 Monthly Crop Roi>ort. April. 101«. 

2 Netrro Miunitiiui in i:>l»",-i;»i7. Division of Nou'ro Kconoinlcs. I'lilted States 
DepartintMit of Labor. W.ishiuK'ton. IIHI). 



22 Third Annual Session 

migration from the rural sections of the older black belt or from 
the northern portion of the state, though the cities of these sec- 
tions have lost many workers. The ruin caused by the boll 
weevil, with the attendant relative abandonment of cotton rais- 
ing in the southwestern portion of the state, coupled with the 
prevalence of low wages in that area and of abnormally high 
wages in the industrial centres of the North, produced the move- 
ment. This migration to the North and East was not purely a 
negro movement, nor was it particularly characteristic of the 
South. "Whites and blacks, from all sections of the country, par- 
ticipated in the movement. It was a perfectly natural and in- 
evitable shifting of labor in response to the call of higher wages. 
The specialist who investigated the situation in Georgia was of 
the opinion, however, that serious social unrest, due to several 
lynchings in southwest Georgia and to bad school facilities, was 
a contributing cause. The government estimate is that from 
May, 1916, to September, 1917, from 12,000 to 15,000 male labor- 
ers, representing a total population of from 35,000 to 40,000, left 
the state. 

No data is available for the migration subsequent to September, 
1917. It is probable that there was comparatively little move- 
ment of laborers from the state after that time. It is believed, 
however, that work on cantonments and in ship-building plants 
drew from the farms in 1918 more labor than did the northward 
movement. There were six cantonments in Georgia and a num- 
ber of ship-building phints and other concerns manufacturing 
war materials at Savannah and Brunswick. 

The extent to which this excessive demand for labor forced 
the price up is revealed in the following table, taken from the 
Monthly Crop Report.^ 

WAGES IN GEORGIA, 1910-1918. 

1910 1914 1916 1917 1918 
Wages per month 

with board $13.00 $12.80 $14.30 $19.00 $23.00 

Wages per month 

without board 18.00 18.00 20.10 26.00 32.60 

No change, it will be observed, occurred between 1910 and 
1914. Since the latter year, however, wages have risen SO per 



1 Monthly Crup Report. Marcb, 1019. 



Georgia Historical Association 23 

cent. Despite the high wages, the negro wage earner is abandon- 
ing in a most determined fashion the wage system. From all 
quarters of the state comes the complaint of inability to hire 
negroes on the wage basis. This tendency has been long oper- 
ative.* The negro dislikes the steady grind of day labor under 
the eye of the overseer. He prefers the greater freedom of the 
tenant system, and just now he is, of course, attractd by the high 
profits to be made from cotton. 

Seasonal labor also has risen sharply. Cotton picking, for 
which in normal times the price is fifty cents per hundred 
pounds, has been paid as high as $2.50, with the general average 
at about $1.25. 

It seems to be abundantly evident that the wage earner on the 
farm has profited much by the abnormal conditions of the past 
four years. Labor has been so scarce as to lead the legislature to 
pass a "Work or Fight" law." In a recent number of The New 
Republic^ there appeared a communication the burden of which 
was that this law has been enforced most harshly against the 
negroes. No instance of the enforcement of this law in rural 
sections has come to the notice of the writer ; and inquiry di- 
rected to every section of the state has elicited the response that 
the law is an absolute dead letter. 

There are two varieties of tenant farmers in Georgia, viz., 
those who pay a share of the crop as rent and those who pay 
either a money rental or a fixed amount of the crop. Corre- 
spondents state that in the case of the share tenant no change 
has occurred in the traditional tenns of the contract, under 
which the landlord supplies everything except the labor and half 
the fertilizer, the crops being shared equally. The only new de- 
velopment noticed is that in parts of south Georgia an arrange- 
ment is becoming popular whereby the landlord supplies all of 
the fertilizer and the tenant the work animal. The advantage 
to both parties is obvious. The planter is able to dictate the 
amount of fertilizer to be used, a point on wliicli the tenant is 
likely to be without strong convictions; and the negro obtains a 
mule for use as he pleases — both parties of course benefiting by 
the extra amount of fertilizer applied. 



1 Brooks. Atrr.u'Ian Revolution In Gooriria. pp. 27-38. 

2 Statute Lmws of r,«>oix'ia, litis, p. 277. 

3 The New Rt^piiblic. March 1, l'.m>. 



24 Third Annual Session 

No change seems to have occurred in the amount of rent paid, 
in the case of the standing renters or cash tenants. It is strange 
that where money rental is paid larger rentals have not been de- 
manded. Where the payment is made in part of the cotton crop, 
of course, the landlord profits by the higher price of the staple, 
cotton everywhere remaining the standard rent crop. 

That the negro tenants are enjoying a period of prosperity 
never before known to them is the universal testimony of all 
farmers and merchants. Indeed, many farmers maintain that 
most of the profits of the period have gone to the negroes, par- 
ticularly in the case of the share tenants — for in that form of 
tenancy none of the excessively high capital investment is sup- 
plied by the tenants, such as stock, machinery, tools, and feed, 
not to mention high taxes; whereas he has received as usual half 
of the net crop. 

It is painful to have to record the fact that on the whole the 
negroes seem not to have used their high profits wisely. Never 
before have merchants sold negroes so many fine clothes, shoes, 
and firearms; never before have they spent so much money in 
traveling about aimlessly ; never before have they bought such 
expensive and luxurious articles of food. Many thousands have 
bought automobiles. High wages on the farm and in the towns 
have encouraged the negro's natural tendency to idleness. Al- 
lotments from the government have contributed to the demorali- 
zation of the shiftless element of the whites and blacks. This 
situation has been especially prevalent in the towTis, where do- 
mestic service has been very unsatisfactory, being both expensive 
and unreliable. 

The substantial element of the negro farm owners and tenants 
in Georgia is making progress and has been stimulated by war 
conditions towards the same lines of development that are en- 
gaging the whites. The College of Agriculture has divided the 
black belt and the southeastern section of the state into ten dis- 
tricts, each of which constitutes a Colored Farm Bureau. In the 
winter of 1918-19 a five-county exhibit of agricultural products 
was held at Fort Vall(\v. Five hundred negroes were present 
and among otlier proihiets exhibited $5,000 worth of cured pork. 
Every piece was examined by an expert from the United States 
Department of Agriculture and only one b;:d piece was discov- 



Georgia Historical Association 25 

ered in the thousand pieces exhibited. The women at the same 
time made a creditable exhibit of butter, eggs, and lard. The 
College supports twenty-five negro women agents whose business 
it is to teach home economics to the colored women of the coun- 
ties to which they are assigned ; ten negro men are employed to 
do the same general work as that performed by the white county 
agents. 



26 Third Annual Session 

Address of President Lucian L. Knight 

Two years ago, in the wake of hostilities with Germany, the 
Georgia Historical Association was born. Its first breath, there- 
fore, was drawn in an atmosphere of patriotism. Its first act 
was to send a telegram to President Wilson. It sought, among 
other things, the accomplishment of two definite objects. One 
of these was the creation of a state department to conserve the 
materials of Georgia's history and to provide an adequate safe- 
guard for her endangered records. It gives me pleasure to an- 
nounce that, during the recent session of the general assembly, 
such a department was created. With slight modifications, it is 
based upon the Alabama model and is known as the Department 
of Archives and History of the State of Georgia. Here let us 
give credit to whom credit is due. For this achievement, we are 
in the main indebted to the Hon. William H. Burwell, of Han- 
cock, who fathered the bill in the house of representatives; and 
to him we owe a vote of thanks. 

In addition to a fund of $6,000 per annum for maintenance, a 
further sum of $2,000 was appropriated for equipment. Four 
well-appointed rooms, on the third floor of the State Capital, are 
today occupied by this department, which is now happily launch- 
ed upon its useful career. It is charged with the custody of 
all the archives of the state which are not in current use, and 
most of these have now been assembled, classified and arranged 
upon shelves, for convenient reference, and provided with safe- 
guards to insure protection. 

The second goal at which we aimed was the publication of a 
quarterly, to serve as the Association's official organ and to stim- 
ulate an interest in the state's history. We did not expect to 
Accomplish this result for another year. But some twenty-five 
members of the Association have underwi'itten a contract which 
guarantees the publication of a magazine of history and which 
put-s it upon a well-assured, if Jiot imleed a permanent, basis. 
This pledge of support is for a limited period, bat there are 
gratifying prospects which warrant the belief that when the 
quarterly is launched we will find the means to keep it success- 
fully afloat. The fact that, in so short a time, we have been 
enabled to accomplish these results — both of a .solid character — 



Georgia Historical Association 27 

speaks in eloquent terms of the substantial growth of the Georgia 
Historical Association. 

I now wish to present in a brief way the facts of a recent dis- 
covery which will doubtless be of interest to many in tlie state. 

In the late autumn of 1917, while strolling through Rock 
Creek Cemetery, near Washington, D. C, I chanced upon the 
grave of an almost forgotten patriot, Abraham Baldwin. The 
name of this distinguished Georgian will barely suffice at this 
late day to stir in the average mind any recollection of his 
services to the state. But, to mention a few of his achievements, 
he drafted the charter of Franklin College, now the State Uni- 
versity, at Athens; he was a member of Congress and a Senator 
of the United States from Georgia ; he was a member or the 
Federal Convention of 1787 ; and among his papers after death 
was discovered a document supposed to be the original draft of 
the Federal Constitution. I shall refer again to this document 
later. 

The county which, for more than half a century, contained the 
State Capitol, was named in his honor, Baldwin county; yet, 
until this discovery was made, his last resting-place, like the 
sepulchre of Moses, was unknown. 

It was not entirely by accident that I discovered Mr. Baldwin's 
tomb. I knew that, at the time of his death, he was wearing the 
toga; that he died in Washington when Congress was in session. 
I knew also that he was not buried in Georgia ; and failing to 
find his grave, after an exhaustive search, in the old Con- 
gressional Cemetery, I began to inquire elsewhere. Arlington, 
on the Virginia side, was, of course, too recent. I did not expect 
to find him there. Nor at Oak Hill, in Georgetown. This, also, 
is of a later period. 

So I next tried Rock Creek. This is today the principal 
burying ground of Washington, but it dates back to 1740. 
Starting as a quiet little country churchyard, its oldest tombs 
cluster around the ancient house of worship, a substantial edi- 
fice of brick; but, on the surrounding hills, rise uumy stately 
monuments, whose pomp of woe is in sharp contrast with these 
archaic memorials. Here, in Rock Creek, lie buried some of 
America's most noted dead. 

On a velvet plot of ground, overshadowed by tall cedars, I 



28 Third Annual Session 

found at last the object of my search. It was a diminutive block 
of stone, not at all in keeping with a statesman's tomb, and was 
more like a monument intended for a child. Carved on the 
stone was this inscription : 

''Abraham, son of Michael and Ruth Baldwin, of 

New Haven, Conn. Died a Senator in Congress from 

Georgia, March 4, 1807." 
But even this dwarfed memorial was shared wdth some one 
else. Above the inscription to Mr. Baldwin, causing the one un- 
derneath to assume a secondary importance, w^as this inscription 
to his sister, who died some ten years late : 

*'Ruth, wife of Joel Barlow, daughter of Michael 

and Ruth Baldwin, of New Haven, Conn. Died, May 

29, 1818. Aged 62 years." 
Here was another discovery. Mr. Baldwdn was a brother-in- 
law of the poet Barlow. This erratic genius, who married ^Ir. 
Baldwin's sister, Ruth, was one of the best know^n literary char- 
acters of our first national period. He wrote the famous ' ' Col- 
umbiad. ' ' ^Moreover, he was minister to France. On the heights 
of Georgetown he established himself in a stately home, which 
he called ''Kalorama. " Widely famed for its beauty of environ- 
ment, it became a social rendezvous. Statesmen of the fii*st rank 
were frequent visitors. Hither also flocked men of letters and 
because of its prestige in this respect it was styled the ''Holland 
House of America." 

The Baldwin family into which Joel Barlow married, and 
from which sprang our Georgia Senator, was a noted Puritan 
family of New Haven, Conn. It has furnished two Governors 
to the Nutmeg State, and an occupant of the Supreme Bench of 
the United States, besides the distinguished subject of this 
sketch. Abraham Baldwin is rightfully regarded as the father 
of the University, since he not only drew its charter but was its 
nominal head for fourteen years. He also named its first pres- 
ident. This was Josiah Meigs, likewise a native of Connecticut 
and a graduate of Yale. He was iVIr. Baldwin's close friend at 
New Haven. 

Ransacking the Library of Congress for information in regard 
to Kalorama, I learned that it was in the family tomb attached to 
this estate that Abraham Baldwin was originally buried. Other 
men of note, besides the Georgia Senator, here found a last rest- 



Georgia Historical Association 



29 



ing place, until disturbed by the marcTi of progress. These in- 
cluded : Commodore Stephen Decatur, who was brought hither 
from the duelling ground on which he fell; Henry Baldwin, a 
younger brother of the Senator and a Justice of the United 
State Supreme Court ; Mrs. Joel Barlow, wife of the poet ; and 
Colonel George Bomford, head of the Ordinance Department, 
U. S. A. 

In the southwest corner of the grounds, on the banks of a 
rivulet (Rock Creek), shaded by fine old forest trees, stood the 
old brick tomb in which these bodies were interred; and, on 
marble slabs, embedded in the brick work, on either side of the 
door, were these inscriptions: 



"Sacred to the repose of the dead and the meditation 
of the living : 

''Joel Barlow, patriot, poet, statesman and philoso- 
pher, lies buried in Zarniwica, Poland, where he died 
December 24, 1812. Aet. 58 years and 9 months. 

''Ruth Baldwin Barlow, his wife, died May 29, 1818. 
Aet. 62 years. 

"Abraham Baldwin, her brother, died a Senator in. 
Congress from Georgia, March 4, 1807. Aet. 52 years. 
His memory needs no marble. His country is his monu- 
ment. Her Constitution his greatest work. 

"George Bomford, Colonel of Ordinance, IT. S., died 
March 25, 1848. Aet. 66 years. 

"Henr>^ Baldwin Bomford, his son, Sept. 9, 1845. 

"Henry Baldwin, Associate Justice Supreme Court 
of the United States, died April 21, 1844. Aet. 64 
years. ' ' 



But in the course of time Kalorama disappeared. It was used 
as a hospital during the war between the states ; but not a ves- 
tige today remains. Its burial ground has also been t>rased 
Dec-atur was removed to Philadelphia where he rests beneath 
an imposing monument in St. Peter's churchyard. The others 
were re-intei-red at Rock Creek; and presumably all are here 
buried, including the associate justice. As the epitapli recites, 
Joel Barlow was buried in Poland. 



30 Third Annual Session 

Reference lias been made to the fact that, among the papers 
left by Mr. Baldwin at his death, was a document which pur- 
ported to be the original draft of the Federal Constitution. My 
authority for this statement is a Maryland historian. (See 
Historic Graves of Maryland, by Helen W. Ridgeley). The in- 
scription on the tomb lends to this statement a degree of color : 
*'His memory needs no marble. His country is his monument. 
Her constitution his greatest work." It is also supported by 
the active part which he took, as a member from Georgia, in 
the Federal Convention. 

On the death of his father, in 1787, there devolved upon Mr. 
Baldwin the support of his six half-brothers and sisters, and it 
speaks well for his parental guardianship that one of these be- 
came an Associate Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, and 
another the wife of a great diplomat, poet and man of genius. 

So intimate w^as Mr. Baldwin's connection with Kalorama 
that I will be pardoned if, in conclusion, I refer again some- 
what briefly to this noted estate and to its somewhat eiTatic 
owner. 

Joel Barlow, now almost forgotten as a poet and scarcely re- 
membered as a diplomat, was a literary lion in his day and, on 
both sides of the water, was accorded high honor. His biography, 
written by Charles Burr Todd (Life and Letters of Joel Barlow^, 
LL.D.), shows that he was quite an international figure. Tt was 
on his return from France in 1805 that the poet accfuired Kalo- 
rama. He contemplated for a time the purchase of Mount Ver- 
non. But his choice finally settled upon this picturesque spot. 

It was a sort of castled estate on the heights of Georgetown. 
Here stood a fine old mansion, on an eminence overlooking Rock 
Creek and commanding a wide sweep of the Potomac VaUey. 
It was in this same neighborhood that Gilbert Stuart once had 
his studio; that Francis Scott Key, who wrote ''The Star- 
Spangled Banner," once lived; and that Tom Moore, the Irish 
minstrel, was entertained on his American visit. The locality, 
therefore, was already invested with the associations of genius. 

But when Katorama became the home of Joel Barlow, it 
moimpol'zed the social glories. From this time on, it beenino a 
great resort for celebrities, including statesmen, diplomats, 
jurists, and even presidents. Among tlu^ mem of note was Rob- 
ert Fulton, the inventor of the steamboat, who lived with the 



Georgia IIistoricai. Association 31 

Barlows for seven years in Paris. The fact that Fulton began 
life as a painter of miniature portraits is now somewhat ob- 
scured by his achievements in a different direction. But he 
superintended the making of the plates for Barlow's ''Colum- 
biad," a work which appeared in 1807. It was richly illustrated 
with engravings by the best London artists and was the cost- 
liest publication attempted in America up to this time. 

Here we find ftobert Pulton on a visit, in 1810, when Jeffer- 
son, Madison and others were invited to meet him and to witness 
a demonstration of his latest scheme for applying steam naviga- 
tion to submarine warfare — an experiment ominous of events to 
occur a century later. But he did not live to perfect his patent. 
Fate shattered liis dreams in this new direction. The invention 
of the steamboat was honor enough for one man. Five j^eare 
later, in 1815, Fulton died. 

Barlow, however, was the first to go, preceding his friend 
Fulton by some three years. The circumstances of his death 
were tragic. Sent to France by President Monroe on a diplo- 
matic errand requiring exceptional skill, it proved to be his last 
service to the government. On December 24, 1812, while hasten- 
ing in the depth of a northern winter to a rendezvous with 
Napoleon, he succumbed to exposure and died at a village in 
Poland His ashes were there entombed. 

Abraham Baldwin, while a Senator in Congress, resided at 
Kalorama, his sister's home, and here in 1807 he was laid to 
rest. A few years later, his sister, Mi^s. Barlow, was laid 
beside him in the family tomb. She returned from Europe in 
the fall of 1813 and took up her residence at Kaloranui ; but she 
did not long survive her husband. The widow of Stephen De- 
catur next succeeded to the ownership of Kalorama and dui'ing 
her lifetime the social traditions were splendidly maintained; 
but with her its glories faded. 

Today there is not a memorial of any kind to tell of this once 
famous seat on the Potomac. Kalorama has been obliterated. 
It belongs to a forgotten past. Massachusetts Avenue now skirts 
the once hallowed spot, while modern buildings today completely 
cover the area. Even the old tomb itself was forced prematurely 
to give up its dead and to Kock Creek Ccnu'tery what remained 
of its sacred ashes was talven for re-interment. Tliere, mingled 
with his kindred dust, sleeps Abraham Baldwin. 



32 TiiiRD Annual Ses>ion 

The University of Georgia in the Great War 

By Professor W. D. Hooper. 

Officially and leg-ally, the University of Georgia comprises a 
number of institutions at various points in the state. The orig- 
inal institution was established at Athens and around it has 
grown the largest group of the university system, so that in the 
popular view this is the University of Georgia, and it is this 
group of institutions which is the subject of the remarks that 
follow. 

Since the opening the State College of Agriculture and the 
Mechanic Arts as a coordinate branch of the University of Geor- 
gia in 1871, military drill has been required of all physically 
qualified members of the Freshman, Sophomore, and Junior 
classes, in accordance with the provisions of the so-called "Land- 
scrip Act;" and for some years, in addition to the drill, there 
has been a requirement of a course in Military Science. As a 
result of this training in the theoiy and practice of militiiry 
science, on the report of the inspectors of the general staff, the 
University of Georgia was listed, in 1917, as one of the "Dis- 
tinguished Military Colleges," of w^hich there were fifteen in 
the United States; a senior unit of the Reserve Officers' Training 
Corps was established ; its Commandant of Cadets w^as appointed 
to receive applications for the Officers' Training Camp which 
\vas opened at Fort McPherson ; and a large number of its more 
advanced students were accepted for this camp. Of the 94 men 
sent to the first Officers' Training Camp from the University, 
88 received commissions ranging in rank from second lieuten- 
ant to major. 

In the summer of 1917 the Quartermaster Corps of the array 
suggested to eight universities that it might be possible to employ 
the facilities of the institutions to train men for the special work 
of this corps; the University of Georgia accepted this oppor- 
tunity, and enrolled 52 men in a course of training lasting two 
months. Of these, 48 were inducted into the service. It was an 
interesting experiment, and had some bearing on the plans later 
adopted by the War Departnu^nt, if indeed it did not suggest 
these plans. Elaborate outliiu^s of the course were sent from 
the Quartermaster General's office, and the men went throusrh a 
very severe training. As this is the business department of the 



Georgia Historical Association ,33 

army, and as everything has to be conducted with meticulous 
care, especially when it involves the expenditure of public money, 
the men were held to a high degree of accuracy. They had to 
learn not only the usual methods of the business departments of 
the army, but also the special manuals of this corps; and, in 
this institution, an additional course in economics, not covered 
by the outline, was given, to the great satisfaction of the Corps. 
For the purpose of instruction, in addition to formal lectures on 
the subjects, they were formed into regular squads, to each of 
which was assigned an actual problem, on which the squad re- 
ported as a whole. A resident of Athens, so capable that he was 
later designated to head the work of the wholesale grocers of the 
state under the Food Administration, became so much interested 
in the work that he took the men into his warehouse and gave 
them practical instruction in the purchase, packing, and ship- 
ment of commodities. The Quartermaster General was so much 
pleased with the work that, whereas the courses were discon- 
tinued at two of the larger universities of the country, the quota 
for the University of Georgia was doubled for the second course, 
the inspector using the following language in a telegram an- 
nouncing this fact: "The Quartermaster General is more than 
pleased to hear of the splendid work being done at the University 
of Georgia." 

A second and a third course were given, and in all 140 men 
trained for this special service were enlisted. The appreciation 
of the Corps was expressed in an official communication from the 
Department Quartermaster's office, under date of December 
22nd, 1917, to the Director of the Course: ''This appears to 
complete the University of Georgia classes, and this office desires 
to thank you for the splendid assistance you have rendered in 
preparing young men for duty in the Quartermaster Corps, and 
for the prompt manner in which communications from this ot!ice 
have been handled. The one hundred and forty men of the three 
University of Georgia classes are believed to be among the best 
enlisted in the Quartermaster Reserve Corps, and the advanced 
training will no doubt be of valued assistance to them in secur- 
ing further advancement." The accuracy of this forecast was 
confirmed by the following facts: the 140 men were inducted 



34 Third Annual Session 

into the service as corporals or sergeants : of these 80 were later 
commissioned. 

It seems probable that this successful experiment suggested tte 
plan of the industrial training which was adopted during the 
next spring and summer, and of the Students Army Training 
Corps, which was organized in the autumn of 1918. It proved 
that the country possessed, in its educational institutions, a 
training force which could be used to good effect in the great 
task of preparation which confronted the country. The phys- 
ical e(iuipment was already in existence, and it was shown that 
the instructors would welcome the opportunity to sei*ve in their 
place. 

ivleantime, in the face of the emergency, and before there w^as 
any suggt^stion from the War Department, the University laid 
plans to be of the greatest possible service. The drill hours were 
increased from three per week to five per week, and the drill 
was placed at the first hour of the day in order to emphasize the 
sense of its importance. Other courses were added to those 
already offered : a second course in Military Science, more ad- 
vanced than the one already given, including Elementary Mili- 
tary Engineering, Army Regulations, Field Service Regulations, 
and other military manuals, was required of all Juniors and 
Seniors, and given credit in the curricula; and optional courses 
were oft'ered in Advanced Military Engineering, Engineering 
Physics, Transportation, and Military Conversational French. 
During the session, at the instance of the Signal Corps, a class in 
Radio was also intsalled. These courses were not only valuable 
in themselves, but seem also to have influenced the War Depart- 
ment in its later plans. The military inspectors were so much 
impressed with them that full details were forwarded to the War 
Department. Under the stress of the emergency the men took 
great interest in those various courses, and there can be no 
doubt tliat they had much to do with the siiccess of the under- 
graduates in securing commissions during the next summer: 
they had also much to do with the high ranking which was given 
the institution on the roll of the Reserve Ollficers Training Corps, 
on which it was preceded only by three distinctively military in- 
stitutions and two much larger univei*sities. So far as inciuiries 
could elicit the facts, no other institution seems to have df voted 



Georgia Historical Association 35 

itself to such an extent to the work of preparing its students to 
meet the emergency. 

As a result of this activity, the University was approached in 
the spring of 1918, hy the newly created Committee on Educa- 
tion and Special Training of the War Department with an en- 
tirely novel proposition. The army needed a very large num- 
ber of men trained for the special services, and saw no way of 
getting these men unless the educational institutions couUl fur- 
nish them. It was, therefore, proposed that the local boards 
should furnish 250 men, with a minimum preparation of the 
completion of the grammar school; that these men should be 
regularly inducted into the service, placed under military dis- 
cipline, and kept at the institution for eight weeks: that the 
University should furnish these men with instruction in certain 
designated subjects, and equip them for the service for which 
they were needed. The subjects designated were Carpentry, 
Toolmaking, Auto-mechanics, Power-plant Electricity, and Radio 
Telegraphy. The institution was partially equipped for this ser- 
vice, and immediately took steps to secure the large amount of 
additional equipment needed for the training of so large a num- 
ber in intensive courses. It was an extremely interesting experi- 
ment, and one that certainly could not be duplicated except 
under the same conditions. The men who reported on May 15th 
— this was one of the first institutions which operated the 
courses — were generally of a high order of intelligence, includ- 
ing a number of college graduates. They expected to see im- 
mediate service and were impressed by the importance of the 
technical work for which they were preparing; and the result 
was a very gratifying earnestness and intensity of effort, and a 
resulting rapidity of progress, even in the more difficult and 
technical subjects, such as electricity and radio; and this in spite 
of the fact that, as they were also to be soldiers, they received 
regular military training and carried out the routine of camp 
life. So successful was the work that it was rapidly extended 
to other institutions over the country, and the Univei-sity was 
asked to undertake what would have been for it a gigantic task: 
the establishment of a radio school for non-commissioned otTicers 
of the Signal Corps for the Southeastern Department, to con- 
tain six hundred men. It was plannwl that these should be sent, 



36 Third Annual Session 

not as before from the local boards, but from the various insti- 
tutions where the courses for radio operators were held : all such 
men to be trained for non-commissioned grades, and the best to 
be trained for commissions. Unfortunately, the outlay required 
w^as so great and the resources of the institution so scant that it 
was found impossible, in spite of the eagerness of the institu- 
tion and the strong recommendation of the inspectors, to under- 
take this work. The work already under way was continued 
until the signing of the armistice, and 610 men received this 
special training. An additional tribute has been paid this work 
within the past few w-eeks. Units of the Motor Corps Reserve 
and of the Signal Corps Reserve have been established in the 
R, 0. T. C. for the next session, and the inspectors frankly said 
that this was done because of the excellence of the work that 
had been done in the institution during the previous year. 

Meantime, the draft on the Faculty had been heavy and con- 
tinuous. Younger members entered the Officers' Training 
Schools, and as the war continued the older men were called into 
the special services. When the Food Administration was or- 
ganized the executive head of the College of Agriculture and 
the IMechanic Arts was chosen as Administrator for the state, and 
has continued his conspicuously successful services: others were 
called into active senace for wiiich their professional training 
fitted them — ^as psychological experts, as experts in the business 
administration of the army and navy, as infantry and aviation 
officers, as veterinarians, as chemical workers, in the service of 
the Red Cross, as educational directors of the Y. M. C. A., 
while others of their colleagues continued the active training of 
soldiers at the institution itself. In all forty-six members of its 
Faculty, comprising 467c of its entire number, w^ere directly and 
actively engaged in war service before the establishment of the 
Students Army Training Corps. 

The most impressive episode of the Commencement of 1918 
was the unfurling of the service flag of the institution. A.s the 
large audience stood in respectful silence, the flag containing 
1,285 stars was unfuHed, as a visible ei]i])UMn of tlie sons of the 
University who liad responded to the call of their country. This 
was an impressive number for an institution in which the total 
attendance had been below 500 until recent years, and had never 



Georgia Historical Association 37 

gone much, beyond 700 : but it was well known that the list was 
incomplete. Lists containing the names of all who were known 
to be in the service were distributed broadcast, with the request 
tliat further information be given on the subject. Even yet 
the list has not been completed, but it is known definitely that 
1,663 Dien who received training in the regular courses of the 
University, not including the men who received special training 
in the several training detachments, had entered the military or 
naval service of the country. If to these are added those named 
above, and those who were enrolled in the S. A. T. C, the grand 
total will be 2,890. How many others were doing valiant service 
in other e<iuaily importctnt lines cannot even be estimated. Of 
this large number practically none were privates : they filled all 
grades and ranks, from corporal to general officer. 

Time would fail to report the vitally important serv'ices ren- 
dered by the agricultural experts of the University: and yet 
their services were considered so necessary that they were, for 
some time, forbidden to enter the military or naval service. 
Long before this country entered the war it was perfectly real- 
ized all over the world that the contest could not be won without 
the food supply of the United States: and the College of Agri- 
culture merely intensified the efforts it had been exerting to 
encourage scientific agi^iculture. To mention but one item, as 
an illustration of the direct bearing this work had on the con- 
test : one of the most potent factors in the collapse of the central 
powers wa5 the lack of fats. It so happens that this state, along 
with the other southern states, is the source of perhaps the most 
important vegetable fats known, in the cotton seed and the 
peanut; and under the spur of unremitting effort on the part of 
the college it has also reached a high rank as a producer of ani- 
mal fats, especially in the form of swine. It is quite reasonable, 
therefore, to assert that the efforts of the College of Agriculture 
in this special line were no less valuable in the common cause 
than the more conspicuous and evident efforts in which it shared 
with the other departments. If this claim be allowed — and it is 
but one of the manifold phases of the work which contributed to 
our succes.s — the proportion of faculty members who were en- 
gaged directly in war work becomes overwhelming. 

The country had set itself an almost superhuman task — the 



38 Third x\nnual Session 

raising of an army of millions, the equipping, feeding, and trans- 
portation of this army, and, perhaps most difficult of all, the 
providing of officers for it. The enemy had freely asserted that 
the American army could not be an effective force, in the nature 
of the case : he did not doubt our ability to furnish the numbers, 
the equipment, even the bravery, and perhaps the discipline ; but 
the officers could not be made, to use his expression, by sewing 
on shoulder straps. The event proved that he was mistaken in 
this, as in so many other views he held before and during the 
contest. It had already been found, to the amazement of allied 
officers, that college bred men, w^ith even a short period of in- 
tensive training, made excellent line officers for American troops. 
It was the most complete vindication that had ever been offered 
of the much maligned American college, and entirely upset many 
plausible theories which had emanated from psychological lab- 
oratories. It became almost an article of faith with the author- 
ities, and officer-candidates reported that when calls w^ere issued 
for special ser^^ices they almost always ended with the words, 
** College men preferred." 

But the list of college graduates had almost been exhausted, 
and the government faced the task of providing officers for an 
even greater number of men. As the draft age w^as to be low- 
ered from 21 to 18, so the age at w^hich commissions would be 
issued was lowered to 18, and a levy w^as to be made on the un- 
dergraduates. One hundred and nineteen members of the Re- 
serve Officei*s' Training Corps, from the Senior, Junior and 
Sophomore classes, had already had a period of training camp 
service at Plattsburgh Barracks: of these seventy-eight received 
special commendation by name in an official communication. Of 
those who returned to a second camp held at the same post from 
July 18th to September 16th, 1918, all but vsix received commis- 
sions as second lieutenants — and of these six, four were under 
the minimum age. It was reported unofficially that almost every 
officer who had any number of Univei*sity of Georgia undergrad- 
uates in his command at Plattsburgh requested that he be aa- 
Kigned to that institution for the next session. 

P^or the Department had now adopted the most revolutionary 
plan ever proposed in educational or military history. It Wius 
nothing less than the commandeering of all the higher institu- 



Georgia Historical Association 39 

lions of learning for the purpose of training officers for the 
army. The colleges were frankly to be converted into military 
posts, all physically fit students between the ages of 18 and 21 
were to be inducted into the army and to be sent to Officer Train- 
ing Schools as soon as they were found fit, and the whole cur- 
riculum was to be altered in the effort to hasten this training. 
In a word, as the basis had been graduation from college, and as 
circumstances had been compelled the use of undergraduates, it 
was now recognized that the basis must be graduation from a 
high school, with as much college training as could be given. 
The Department, in fact, intimated that as these men were 
drained into the training camps others would be sent from the 
ranks to take their places. The usual entrance requirements 
were to be enforced rigidly, but this regulation was almost im- 
mediately relaxed, and it seemed evident that within a few 
months the colleges would be filled with men chosen for manly 
qualities and intelligence, but without the technical training 
which would qualify them to take the usual college courses. 

It was the greatest compliment that had ever been paid the 
colleges of America. During the war of 1812, and during the 
War Between the States, the University had been forced to close 
its doors : it was feared that the number of students would fall 
so low for the session 1918-19 that the work would be greatly im- 
peded, if it did not cease. The government recognized in these 
institutions a great national asset, and the University was pro- 
vided with almost its normal quota of students. Four hundred 
and eighty-six men were enrolled in the army unit, and one 
hundred and forty-one in the naval section of what was named 
the Students Army Training Corps. The plan was an admirable 
one in many respects, but it could have been improved greatly if 
more college men had been consulted. Experience had proved 
that officer-material had been furnished by the colleges more 
than by any other agency, and that these men had been equipped 
by the regular college training. The mistake seemed to lie in 
the idea that attendance at a college is enough to make a college 
man — an error shared by many men in the colleges. There are 
many items in the training which seemed to have been so suc- 
cessful in equipping nu^n for this work, but chief among them 
are the courses of study and what is called, for lack of a better 



40 Third Annual Session 

name, the ''atmosphere." The latter was, of course, totally de- 
stroyed at once, and necessarily. There could be no college life 
in a rigidly disciplined army post. There was, therefore, all the 
more need that emphasis be laid on the college courses. Instead, 
most of the courses were entirely ignored, and a strictly utili- 
tarian scheme was adopted. Another sin against nature was the 
arbitrary division of the men into classes strictly according to 
age; so that a dull boy of 19 who had been able to complete only 
his high school work might sit beside a brilliant boy of the same 
age who would have been a Junior in college. It may have been 
necessary, but it was at least unfortunate. An important result 
of these two steps was that the men early conceived the idea 
that proficiency in military exercises was much more import-ant 
than excellence in scholarship — as indeed proved to be true. 
Another result, quite as serious, was the introduction of courses 
of an exteremely elementary nature. When protest was made 
against lowering the entrance standards, the District Director, 
the late President of the University of North Carolina, replied, 
perhaps with some degree of irony: "Men with thirteen units of 
credit can take most of the courses provided for S. A. T. C. 
men." His statement was within the bounds of moderation. 
The twenty-year-old men had the following courses: Issues of 
the War, Topography, Hygiene-Sanitation, Military Law, and 
an elective. The preceding year all Juniors and Seniors had had 
a course in ^Military Science which comprised two of these sub- 
jects; most of them had had course-s in history ^\1lich covered 
the issues of the war; while many had had courses in hj^giene 
and sanitation. Even the military training given in the preced- 
ing year had been as extersive as that required under the new 
regime. But the most serious fault lay in the somewhat naive 
conception that underlies so much of modern educational theory 
— a conception that makes no distinction between training and 
education, and demands that all school work should be "prac- 
tical." Surely, it might have been s.-en that this theory had 
been disproved by all the experience of the anny up to that 
time. Of the sons of tlie University who received commis- 
sions as Captains of Infantry in the first Officers Training 
Camp one was a clergyman who had taken most of his work 
in the Universitv and at Oxford in the humanities and was 



Georgia Historical Association 41 

at the time a Professor of New Testament Greek. Few of these 
men had taken " practical" subjects, but all liad breathed to a 
greater or less extent, the broadening and vitalizing air that 
prevails in those favored spots which are inspired by the thought 
that man does not live by bre^id alone. What was needed was 
educated men: the college can furnish these if it is allowed to 
use its time-honored methods; but the ''royal road to learning" 
has not yet been discovered, and the short-cuts seem to lead 
nowhere. This particular experiment was not completed be- 
cause of lack of time, but it lasted long enough to prove to all 
unprejudiced observers that a serious, if not fatal error had 
been committed at the outset. "We have no way," said Pat- 
rick Henry, "to judge of the future but by the past;" and 
judging by the past the countiy must depend for its civil and 
militaiy leaders largely on those men who have received the 
training which is only to be had from standard college cur- 
ricula, even thought it seems to hasty and impatient observers 
that the longest way round cannot be the shortest way home. 

However, the University bent sturdily to its task. Professors 
turned aside from their life work, and took up unaccustomed 
tasks; executives battled with the new problems raised by the 
altered conditions and the varying and frequently contiieting 
decisions of an authority which was trying to feel its way along 
an untrodden path: student-soldiers, fired with patriotic zeal, 
endeavored to adapt themselves to their strange environment; 
and the institution became a war-engine, devoting itself to the 
task of training, as best it could, officers to organize the huge 
forces that were to be raised. 

The drafts began early. Within two weeks a call came for 
men for the Officers' Training Schools, and five were sent. The 
calls followed fast, for the schools for infantry officers, for heavy 
artillery, for light artillery, and within the eight wet^ks before 
the signing of the armistice and the closing of these schools 65 
young men had been dispatched. ]\Iost of them were soon dis- 
charged, but a few remained and received commissions in the 
Reserve Corps. Orders which had been received for tlie dis- 
patch of more men were cancelled. 

Many of the men who had entered the service returrK^d to col- 
lege on their discharge, and every effort has been made to re- 



42 Third Annual Session 

store the ante-bellum status. The re^lar courses of study, which 
had been interrupted, were restored, credit was allowed for the 
work done in various ways during the autumn, and smiling peace 
seemjs to have settled again upon the campus. 

But the enlarged service flag contains not only blue stars: 
twenty-eight of the sons of the University are known to have 
given their lives to the cause. Their names form a roll of honor 
which will be an inspiration to coming generations of students 
and a symbol of the whole spirit of the institution, expressed by 
one of its alumni, Eobert W. Lillard, of the class of 1899, in 
his noble response to the noble appeal of Colonel McCrae : 

"Rest ye in peace, ye Flanders dead; 
The fight that ye so bravely led 
We've taken up. And we will keep 
True faith with you who lie asleep, 
With each a cross to mark his bed, 
And poppies blowing overhead, 
Where once his own life blood ran red; 
So let your rest be sweet and deep 
In Flanders Fields. 

Fear not that ye have died for naught. 
The torch ye threw to us we caught. 
Ten million hands will hold it high, 
And Freedom's light shall never die! 
We've learned the lesson that ye taught 
In Flanders Fields." 



Georgia Historical Association 43 

The War Activities of the Georgia School of Technology 
By Professor W. G. Perry. 

One presenting at this time a record of the Georgia School of 
Technology in its war services must ask tolerance on the score 
of haste and of incompleteness. There has as yet been small 
time to compile the records available; and had such time been 
available, these records are not yet in shape for final statements. 
Young engineers are a nomadic people ; the changes' due to war 
conditions have increased this tendency to shift place of employ- 
ment. The labor of collecting and compiling records of the 
alunuii has been undertaken by Dr. Gilbert H. Boggs, of the 
Chemical Department of the School; and in this work he has 
accomplished no little. With a few exceptions the alumni data 
is in hand. Attention will be given later to an assembling of 
the records of former and present non-graduate students, and 
of the hundreds of young men who were members of the military 
schools maintained by the government at the Georgia Tech. 

When war was declared in the spring of 1917, the Faculty 
and Board of Trustees of the Georgia School of Technology has- 
tened to place the institution at the disposal of the National 
Government. The Senior class volunteered as a unit, and a ma- 
jority of these young men entered the first Officers' Training 
Camp at Fort McPherson. At the Commencement exercises in 
June there faced General Wood, the speaker of the day, only a 
handful of civilian Seniors, and these were mainly waiting 
orders to report for service. A large part of the undergraduate 
body would have followed the Senior class in offering for mili- 
tary service (many did so) had not pressure been brought upon 
them to keep them at their school duties. The War Department 
urged that while an infantry officer might be trained in three 
months, an engineer demanded three years for training. 

The first result of the Government's acceptance of the offer of 
the plant and equipment of the School appeared early in the 
summer. The Tech had the distinction of being selected as one 
of the nine leading technical institutions of the country for the 
establishing of a Ground School of Military Aeronautics. This 
school was established and began work July 5, 1917. The course 
extended over a period of eight weeks, and was so arranged that 
a class — approximately one-eighth of the attendance — was grad- 



44 Third Annual Session 

uated each week, their places being filled by a newly-entering 
class. The graduates were sent to a flying field to receive addi- 
tional instruction preparing them to serv^e as pilots. The course 
was a severe one ; but it is estimated that not less than 800 stu- 
dents were graduated and sent to flying fields. 

This school was closed January 12, 1918, at which time the 
Government policy reduced the number of Ground Schools of 
Aeronautics to three. In its stead there was established imme- 
diately at the Tech a School of Supply Officers in Air Service, 
the only institution of exactly this kind created in the country; 
the Georgia Tech was signally distinguished in being selected as 
the place for this school. Students were commissioned as sec- 
ond lieutenants upon graduation. The school lasted three months, 
until May 15, 1918, when it came to an end, the need of the 
Government for officers of this type having at that time been 
met. The number of graduates of this school was 800. 

When the Ground School of Military Aeronautics was begun, 
the Government plan was to have 250 students in regular attend- 
ance. Early in the fall of 1917, it was found that the needs of 
the service demanded a larger number of men in training. This 
number was first increased to 500 and later to 750. It seemed 
at first impossible to provide for this addition of 750 men to the 
regular student body of about 800. The problem was solved by 
emptying the dormitories of regular Tech students, surrendering 
a number of the class rooms, and erecting tents on the campua 
Later, temporary wooden barracks were built. 

Early in July, following the close of the School of Supply 
Officers in Air Service, a training detachment of drafted men, 
about 1,000 in number, was sent to the Tech for special instruc- 
tions in wireless, surveying, study of motor trucks, electrical 
study, and work in the wood and machine shops. This school 
continued until the demobilizing of the S. A. T. C. in Decem- 
ber, 1918. 

In October, 1918, the Student Army Training Corps was es- 
tablished at the Tech. Army, Naval, and ]\Iarine units were 
created. In Xovember the War Department determined to col- 
lect at a single institution tlie several Marine units established 
throughout the South and ^Middle West. Owing to the eminent 
service already performed by the Georgia School of Technology, 



Georgia Historical Association 45 

this institution was chosen as the place for such purpose. To 
the Marine unit already existing at this school were added those 
that had been established at the University of North Carolina, 
at the Univei*sity of Texas, and at the University of Kansas. 
The student membership of the S. A. T. C. (collegiate division) 
was 975, distributed as follows: 700 in the Army unit, 175 in 
the. Naval unit, and 100 in the I\Iarine unit. The number in 
each unit would have been much larger but for the fact that 
Governmental order limited the number of students admitted. 

The transforming of an educational institution into an army 
post was accompanied by unavoidable confusion. Probably, 
however, the Georgia Tech suffered less in this respect than did 
the larger number of American colleges. The course already 
est-ablished at the institution was such as to meet the needs and 
requirements of the Government by a compressing and some 
eliminating of subjects taught. The School, too, owes much to 
the tact and wisdom of its S. A. T. C. Commandant, Major 
Heermance, a former member of the English Faculty of Prince- 
ton University. 

A summary of the above activities is given below: 
Members of the S. A. T. C. (collegiate division) : 

Army unit 700 

Naval unit 175 

Marine unit 100 

Total 975 975 

Ground School of Military Aeronautics 800 

School of Supply Officers in Air Service 800 

Training detachment of drafted men 1,100 

Grand total ______3,675 

Faculty members in active service ; 12 

Alumni only : 
Army : 

Colonels 1 

Lieutenant-Colenels 3 

Majors 17 

Captains 49 

First Lieutenants 102 



46 Third Annual Session 

Second Lieutenants 132 

Non-Commissioned 32 

Others 62 

Total Army 398 

Navy : 

Lieutenants 4 

Lieutenants (Junior grade) 3 

Ensigns 22 

Others 34 

Total Navy 63 

Marines : 

Colonels 1 

Majors 1 

Captains 1 

Lieutenants 2 

Others 1 

Total Marines 6 

Coast Guard: 
Lieutenants 2 

Grand Total 469 

Grand total of men furnished Army and Navy, over 4,000. 

The above summary takes no account of the former Georgia 
Tech men who are not graduates but loyal sons of the institution. 
A fair estimate of the number of these who served their country 
in its military and naval establishment, based on the percentage 
of the alumni, would be about 4,000, piaking a grand total of 
over 8,000 men furnished by the Georgia School of Technology 
to serve their country in the Army and Navy. Besides these, 
the School has, not yet tabulated, records of many alumni and 
non-graduate students who were performing not less useful 
and honorable service in the '* essential industries." 

Reduced to a percentage basis this record becomes more sig- 
nificant. Tlie Georgia Scliool of Technology is a young institu- 
tion; its total roster of alumni, living and dead, number only 
1,087. The percentage of these in the Army and Navy was 43 



Georgia Historical Association 47 

per cent. Of commissioned officers, there were in the Army 304, 
and in the Navy 36, a total of 340. That is, 34 per cent, of the 
alumni held commissions in Army or Navy; and 73 per cent, of 
the total number of Georgia Tech alumni who were in service 
were commissioned officers. 

The School was fortunate in having a comparatively small 
number of casualties. The number of known dead among the 
alumni is 13. This fact is partly due to the fact that^ despite 
their chagrin and disappointment, a considerable number of 
these young officers were, as a tribute to their superior quality 
and attainment, held in this country or sent abroad as officers 
in schools of instruction. 

This bare, even meager, report is submitted with full conscious- 
ness of its inadequacy and incompleteness. The time is not yet 
come for a full and complete report of what the men of Georgia 
Tech did in the great war; months must pass before such a re- 
port can be made. This report is made not without pride, a 
pride that every Georgian wdll feel in the knowledge of how 
finely a Georgia institution, of how finely Georgia boys, respond- 
ed to the call to service. This report is made simply and mod- 
estly. These young men offered themselves for a great sacrifice 
so quietly, with so little ostentation, that a record of their ser- 
vice should share that quality. Young Gawain let his answer 
be his deed, and the recorder of that deed w^ill be too wise to rob 
it of any of its noble simplicity by any attempted artistry. 
**When the bugles sounded war, they put their games away.'' 
They showed themselves worthy to continue the great tradition 
of their inheritance. They created a new tradition ; and we 
may believe that the ideal of service which they have lived will 
not be without its effect upon those who shall succeed them as 
students within the walls of Georgia Tech. 



48 Third Annual Session 

The Georgia Historical Review 

At the October, 1918, meeting of the Executive Council, the 
question of beginning a modest quarterly publication as the 
organ of the Association came up for discussion. At the time 
there was some hope of securing a permanent endowment, but 
as the issue was in doubt, the Council authorized the Secretary 
to look for sufficient temporary support to get the venture start- 
ed, in the event the endowment proved to be not forthcoming. 
Subsequently it became necessary to adopt the latter plan. 

At the present time there is no possibility of supporting a 
publication with only the income from dues, and unless some 
means of doubling the membership can be devised, a quarterly 
cannot be maintained without other resources. Under these 
circumstances, the Council decided to make a three-year exper- 
iment. A fund has been raised by private subscription sufficient 
to support the periodical for three years. The estimated income 
from dues for that period is $1,200. The private subscriptions 
aggregate $2,000. The total of $3,000 will be ample to support 
a periodical of the character contemplated. 

No difficulty was met with in raising the supplementary fund. 
In nearly every case the members approached made substantial 
subscriptions. The following is a list of the subscribers : Chan- 
cellor D. C. Barrow, Mr. P. F. Brock, Prof. R. P. Brooks, Mr. 
W. T. Bryan, Judge Andrew J. Cobb, Mr. Howell C. Erwin, 
Mrs. H. M. Franklin, Hon. Jno. W. Grant, Mr. Harold Hirseh, 
Hon. Clarke Howell, Hon. B. W. Hunt, Prof. T. H. Jack, Dr. 
L. L. Knight, Mr. C. C. McGehee, Mrs. P. H. Mell (in memory 
of Dr. P. H. Mell), Mr. M. G. Michael, Mr. Alfred C. Newell, 
Mr. Billups Phinizy, Mr. Orville A. Park, Mrs. James White, 
Mr. C. F. Whitner, Mr. T. C. Whitner, and Mr. R. J. H. 
D^Loach. 

These members have underwritten the Be view for a period of 
three years. They become guarantors of the expenses of the 
publication up to the amount of their individual subscriptions. 

The Council hopes at the end of the three years that the mem- 
bership will be strong enough to support the periodical. Should 
this hope be unn^alized, it may still bo possible to find a perma- 
nent endowment, or to continue the publication under the pres- 
ent plan. 

At the meeting of April 11th, the Council, having received 



Georglv Historical Association 49 

the report of the Secretary showing the success of the effort to 
raise a guarantee fund, authorized the publication, adopted the 
name The Georgia Historical Review, and fixed January 1st, 
1920, as the date of the first number. The editorial stall* will 
consist of Prof. R. P. Brooks, managing editor; Miss Cleo 
Hearon, Ph.D., Professor History in Agnes Scott College; Pro- 
fessor T. H, Jack, Ph.D., Professor of History in Emory Uni- 
versity; and Professor J. H. T. McPherson, Ph.D., Professor of 
History in the University of Georgia. 

Plans are now being worked out for the publication. It is 
designed to have the Review i-un from fifty to one hundred pages 
per number. The contents will be along the follo^^nng line-s: 
There will always be one or more papers on historical subjects. 
A sufficient number of papers has already been promised to take 
care of this part of the work for three yeai^. Next in import- 
ance — indeed of much more importance for research students, — 
will be the section given to the printing of documents. The man- 
aging editor has on hand, ready for printing, the letters of 
Howell Cobb. These will be run serially, and when they are 
exhausted, other similar papers are available. A third part of 
the Review will be occupied by reviews of the important books 
in the field of Southern and Georgia History. The reviews will 
not be confined to new books. Any volumes of importance wliich 
the editors feel should be brought to the attention of Georgians 
will be included. This department will alsjo contain notes 
bearing on the publications of other patriotic societies in Geor- 
gia and on the publications of the various state departments. 
An annual bibliography \^'ill be printed, listing all books publLsh- 
ed in the field of Georgia history. 

A special effort will be made to secure for publication diaries 
and letters written during the recent war, as well as narratives 
and recollections subsequently \\Titten. 

Finally, a section will be given to historical news. The gen- 
eral current of historical activity and development in the coun- 
try at large will be briefly chronicled. It should be of value and 
interest to Georgians to know what is being done in other .sec- 
tions and states. We have much to learn from more progressive 
communities. 

With this number the Proceedings of the Association will be 



50 Third Annual Session 

discontinued. The time of the annual meeting will be shifted 
back to a date in March, so that the second, or April, number 
of the Review may contain a report of the meeting and the ad- 
dresses delivered on that occasion. 



Georgia Historical Association 51 

Members of the Association 

Adams, Judge J. S Dublin 

Adamson, Miss Nellie 193 7 Calvert St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Adamson, Hon. Robert Fire Comm., New York, N. Y. 

Adamson, Hon. W. C Carrollton 

Adkins, T. A Vienna 

Alfriend, Prof. K. T Milledgeville 

Allen, Mrs. H. D Milledgeville 

Alston, R. C Atlanta 

Andrews, Hon. Walter P Atlanta 

Arnett, A. M Sylvania 

Atwater, Capt. J. R Thomaston 

Austin, James W Atlanta 

Bahnsen, Peter F Americus 

Bailey, W. A '. Toccoa 

Baker, Mrs. T. A Valdosta 

Banks, W. W. Atlanta 

Barker, Miss Tommie Dora Carnegie Library, Atlanta 

Barnett, E. A Washington 

Barnett, J. W Athens 

Barrett, Wm. H Augusta 

Barrett, Hon. C. S Union City 

Barrow, Chancellor D. C -Athens 

Bass, Miss Addie Clarkesville 

Battey, Dr. W. W., Jr Augusta 

Beeson, Mrs. J. L Milledgeville 

Bell, Judge George L Atlanta 

Bell, R. C. Cairo 

Bell, Hon. Thos. M Gainesville 

Bennett, Hon. Claude N Southern Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Benton, Mrs. W. N 454 Green St., Augusta 

Bernd, Miss Florence 197 Laurel Ave., Macon 

Berry, E. J Waycross 

Bickers, D. G Savannah 

Black, Mrs. Nellie Peters Atlanta 

Blackshear, Mrs. E. J Dublin 

Blassingame, Hon. Josiah Jersey 

Blount, Hon. W. A Pensacola, Fla. 

Bohler, Chas. S Box 187, Augusta 

Boland, Dr. F. K Atlanta 

Bond, Claude Toccoa 

Boston, John H. Marietta 

Boylston, Albert Atlanta 

Bradley, A. S. Swainsboro 

Bradwell, J. D Athens 

Bradwell, J. S Bainbridge 

Brand, L. M. Lawrencevillo 



52 Third Annual Session 

Branham, Dr. A. I 2 N. Forsyth St., Atlanta 

Brantley, Hon. W. G Munsey Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Brittain, Hon. M. L Atlanta 

Brock, P. F. Macon 

Brooks, Mrs. R. P Forsyth 

Brooks, Prof. R. P Athens 

Brown, Hon. Elijah A 720 Piedmont Ave., Atlanta 

Brown, Hon. E. T Atlanta 

Brown, Dr. George Atlanta 

Brown, J. Epps . Capitol. Atlanta 

Brown, Hon. J. J Atlanta 

Brown, L. L., Jr Fort Valley 

Brown, Mrs. O. B Berlin, N. H. 

Brown, Hon. Joseph ^l Marietta 

Brown, Hon. Pope Hawkinsville 

Brown, Miss Sally E 1100 Peachtree Si., Atlanta 

Brown, W. J Jackson, Miss 

Broyles, Arnold Atlanta 

Broyles, Judge N. R Atlanta 

Bryan, Shepard Atlanta 

Bryan, Mrs. W. T Athene 

Burke, Col. J. F Atlanta 

Burwell, Hon. W. H Sparta 

Butler, Miss Bessie W Madison 

Caldwell, A. B Central Bldg., Atlanta 

Calhoun, Dr. T. P Atlanta 

Calloway, Merrel P Fourth National Bank, Macon 

Campbell, J. B Atlanta 

Candler, Hon. C. M ^ Atlanta 

Candler, Judge J. S Atlanta 

Candler, Chancellor W. A Atlanta 

Carithers, Mrs. J. Y Athens 

Carson, J. A. G Savannah 

Carswell, Mrs. Arabella Walker.; Waynesboro 

Carswell, Hon. George H Irwinton 

Carter, W. Colquitt . Atlanta 

Chapman, Mrs. L. H . Quitman 

Chappell, L. H Columbus 

Clark, Mrs. W. C Covington 

Cobb, Judge A. J AtJiens 

Cobb, Herschel P Savannah 

Cobb, Judge John A :_Americus 

Cobb, Lamar Phoenix, Ariz. 

Cobb, Mrs. Maude Barker State Library, Atlanta 

Cobb, Hon. Zach Lamar El Paso, Texas 

Cobb, W. H Elkins. W. Va. 

Cocke, Mrs. Sarah J Roanoke, Va. 

Cohen, J. Graves Capitol, Atlanta 



Georgia Historical Association 53 

Coleman, F. W. Atlanta 

Collins, Byron R Blakely 

Collins, E. C. Reidsville 

Connally, Dr. E. L Atlanta 

Connally, Mrs. E. L Atlanta 

Connally, Thomas W Atlanta 

Cook, Mrs. S. A Milledgeville 

Coombs, H. H. Bainbridge 

Corput, Felix Cave Springs 

Corrigan, John, Jr 818 Riggs BIdg., Washington D. C. 

Crane, Bryson Augusta 

Crawford, Dr. W. B Lincolnton 

Crenshaw, Dr. Hansell Atlanta 

Crum, Judge D. A. R Cordele 

Dailey, Miss Carrie L State Library, Atlanta 

Dame, Dr. Geo. A Iverness, Fia. 

Daniel, Prof. J. W. W., Weslsyan Female College ^lacon 

Daniel, L. J. 45 Peachtree St., Atlanta 

Davidson, Mrs. J. L . Quitman 

Davis, Mrs. Edwin S Bonnie Crest, Macon 

Davis, Miss Ola Ashburn 

Day, Thos. J. Atlanta 

Dean, Hon. H. H Gainesville 

DeLoach, R. J. H Armour & Co., Chicago, 111. 

DeLoach, Dr. A. G Grant Bldg., Atlanta 

Denmark, Miss Emma C Forsyth 

Derry, Prof. Jos. T Atlanta 

Dixon, W. N. D : Fayetteville 

Dodson, Hon. W. A Americus 

Dooly, Miss Isma Atlanta 

Dorsey, Gov. Hugh ^1 Atlanta 

Dozier, Miss Katherine Gainesville 

Duke, Prof. Jos. B Forsyth 

Dunlap, Col. S. C Gainesville 

Eagan, John J. Atlanta 

Edmondson, Miss M. V .Meda 

Edwards, Judge M. C Dawson 

Ellis, Robert C. Tifton 

Erminger, H. B., Jr Macon 

Erwin, Mrs. A. S Athens 

Erwin, Howell C. Athens 

Espy, Mrs. E. M Cordele 

Evans, Judge B. D Savannah 

Evans, T. W. Dublin 

Farmer, Mrs. Lula M Thomson 

Felker, J. H Monroe 

Felton, Dr. H. E Cartersville 

Felton, Judge W. H Macon 



54 Third Annual Session 

Fish, Judge Wm. H 925 Ponce de Leon Ave., Atlanta 

Fitzpatrick, Mrs. Z. I Thomasville 

Fleming, Hon. Wm. H Augusta 

Folsom, H. B. Mt. Vernon 

Foreman, Lauren Atlanta 

Fortson, B. E. Athens 

Foster, Mrs. Sophie Lee Atlanta 

Franklin, Mrs. H. M Tennille 

Gaillard, Mrs. B. P Dahlonega 

Garlington, Hon. Sam F Augusta 

Garrett, Prof. T. H Augusta 

Gibson, Dr. J. T Porterdale 

Glenn, President G. R Dahlonega 

Gober, Judge Geo. F Atlanta 

Godard, G. D. Milner 

Golucke, A. G. Crawfordville 

Goodrich, Judge L. P Griffin 

Gordon, H. H. Athens 

Gordon, G. lA. Savannah 

Gormon, O. D. Atlanta 

Goss, Dr. I. H Athens 

Graham, John M Marietta 

Grant, John W Atlanta 

Gray, Prof. Claud Locust Grove 

Greene, Mrs. M. A Washington 

Grogan, Judge G. C Elberton 

Grice, Hon. Warren Macon 

Griggs, Mrs. J. M Dawson 

Hall, L. C. Milledgeville 

Hardaway, Mrs. R. H Newnan 

Hardeman, B. F. Athens 

Hardeman, Judge J. L Macon 

Hardman, Dr. L. G Commerce 

Hardwick, F. T Dalton 

Harris, J. C Cave Springs 

Harris, Lucian Atlanta 

Harris, Hon. N. E Atlanta 

Harris, Senator W. J Washington, D. C. 

Harrison, Geo. W Box 945, Atlanta 

Harrison, Z. D Atlanta 

Hays, Mrs. J. E Montezuma 

Hearon, Miss Cleo Agnes Scott College, Decatur 

Heatwole, Prof. C. J Athens 

Henderson, Miss Lillian State Capitol, Atlanta 

Hermann, Dr. H. A Sandersville 

Herty, Dr. Chas. H 35 E. 41st St., New York. N. Y. 

Hill, Judge H. W Atlanta 

Hlllyer, Judge George Atlanta 



Georgia Historical Association 55 

Hlllyer, Wm. Hurd Atlanta 

Hine, H. J. Rome 

Hirsch, Harold Atlanta 

Hodgson, Harry Athens 

Holden, Judge H. M Athens 

Holder, Hon. J. N Jefferson 

Hollingsworth, J. C, Jr . Sylvania 

Horton, M. C 604-5 Temple Court, Atlanta 

Horton, O. E 604-5 Temple Court, Atlanta 

Howard, Hon. W. S Decatur 

Howell, Hon. Clark Atlanta 

Hoyt, J, Wallace Rhodes Bldg., Atlanta 

Hughes, Hon. D. M Danville 

Hulsey, Hal 11 Rupley Drive, Atlanta 

Humphries, Jos. W Atlanta 

Hunt, B. W Eatonton 

Hunt, Prof. H. R Powder Springs 

Hutcheson, J. B Jonesboro 

Huxford, Folks Homerville 

Jack, Prof. T. H Oxford 

Jackson, M. M Atlanta 

Jacobs, Dr. Jos Atlanta 

Jacobs, President Thornwell Atlanta 

Jaques, S. R Macon 

Jeffries, Judge T. H Atlanta 

Johnson, Prof. E. H Oxford 

Johnston, G. S Statesboro 

Jones, Chas. Edgeworth 2249 Walton Way, Augusta 

Jones, G. Noble Savannah 

Jones, H. S Augusta 

Jones, J. Littleton Newnan 

Jones, Miss Nora Elberton 

Jones, W. F Elberton 

Jones, Winfield P Atlanta 

Jordan, F. C . Monticello 

Jordan, Hon. G. Gunby Columbus 

Jordan, J. K Third National Bank Bldg., Atlanta 

Kelly, C. P Madison, Fla. 

Kent, Wm. B Alamo 

Kilpatrick, Prof. W. H Columbia University, New York City 

King, Gary J Rome 

King, J. N Rome 

Kiser, Gordon P Atlanta 

Knight, Dr. Lucian Lamar Atlanta 

Ladson, C. T Atlanta 

Lamar, Mrs. Jos. R Muscogee Road, Atlanta 

Lamar, Dr. Lucius Dawson 

Landrum, L. M Atlanta 



56 Third Annual Session 

Lane, Miss Annie ^I Washington 

Lane, Mrs. Julian C Statesboro 

Lane, Mrs. J. H Sylacauga, Ala. 

Langston, L. O Atlan;ta 

Larsen, Judge W. W Dublin 

Latimer, W. Carroll Atlanta 

Lawson, Hal Abbeville 

Lee, Hon. Gordon Chickamauga 

Lefurgey, J. J Eton 

Legwen, G. W Augusta 

Lewis, Mrs. James F Thomaston 

Lewis, Mrs. Lena Felker Capitol, Atlanta 

Lindsey, Judge J. W Irwinton 

Lippitt, A. J A-lbany 

Little, Hon. John D Atlanta 

Long, Prof. Frank T Sutherland, Fla. 

Longley, Judge F. M LaGrange 

Lokey, Mrs. Hugh M Atlanta 

Lott, Warren Waycross 

Love, Miss Louise O 49 Blue Ridge, Atlanta 

Lumpkin, Judge E. K Athens 

McAdoo, Malcolm R 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, N. Y. 

McCain, Prof. J. R Decatur 

McCall, Mrs. H. H Atlanta 

McCallie, Hon. S. W Atlanta 

McCord, Jos. A Atlanta 

McDaniel, Hon. H. D Monroe 

McDaniel, Sanders Atlanta 

McGehee, C. C Atlanta 

Mcintosh, H. M Albany 

Maclntyre, W. I Thomasville 

McNeel, M. L Marietta 

McPherson, Dr. J. H. T Athens 

McWhorter, Judge Hamilton : Athens 

Mann, Mrs. W. E Dalton 

Martin, Stiles A Atlanta 

Massengale, St. Elmo Atlanta 

Massey, J. D __Columbus 

Matheson, President K. G Atlanta 

Matthews, J. E. F Thomaston 

Meadow, Judge D. W Elberton 

Men, Rev. John D ___Athens 

Men, G. A , Athens 

Men, Mrs. P. H Atlanta 

Men, Thos. S Athens 

Meyer, Cecil 4th Nat'l Bk. Bldg., Atlanta 

Meyer, Prof. Harold D Athens 

Michael, M. G Athens 

MiUer, Hon. B. S Columbus 



Georgia Historical Association 57 

Mitchell, Eugene M .Atlanta 

Moncrief, Rev. A. J Barnesville 

Montgomery, Dr. C. J Augusta 

Moon, Prof. A. H Tifton 

Moore, Mrs. Lee C Decatur 

Morris, Dean Sylvanus Athens 

Mott, Prof. J. P Valdosta 

Murphy, Jno. E Atlanta 

Nash, Gen. J. VanHolt -Atlanta 

Newell, A. C Atlanta 

Newton, Prof. L. D._ Macon 

Nicolson, Mrs. W. P Atlanta 

Nottingham, Mrs. E. T Thomaston 

Nunnally, ^Mrs. W. H Monroe 

Nutting, James R Atlanta 

Obeidorfer, Eugene Atlanta 

Odum, Prof. H. W Emory University, Atlanta 

Olive, Hon. Sam L Augusta 

Orr, J. K Atlanta 

Ottley, Mrs. J. K Atlanta 

Owen, Hon. Thomas M 'Montgomery, Ala. 

Park, Judge Frank Sylvester 

Park, Hon. O. A ]Macon 

Park, Walter G Blakely 

Parker, Oscar Fairburn 

Parker, :Mrs. T. C Macon 

Parks, Benj. G Waycross 

Parks, President ^M. M._ 'Milledgeville 

Patterson, Judge T. E Griffin 

Payne, Prof. W. O Athens 

Peabody, George Foster Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 

Pearce, President H. J Gainesville 

Persons, A. P Talbotton 

Persons, Hon. G. Ogden Forsyth 

Peeples, Mrs. Oscar T Cartersville 

Phillips, Prof. C. E Boys' High School, Atlanta 

Phillips, Prof. U. B Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Phillips, Judge W. L Louisville 

Phinizy, Barrett Athens 

Phinizy, Billups Athens 

Phinizy, C. H Athens 

Pitts, Miss Kate C Toccoa 

Pittman, Mrs. C. E Commerce 

Porter, 'Mrs. A. L Sylacauga, Ala. 

Pound. President J. M Athens 

Powell, President R. H Vaklosta 

Prescott, Miss Helen M 701 Peachtree St.. Atlanta 

Quarterman, W. H Winder 



58 Third ANNUiU. Session 

Quincey, Judge J. W , Douglas 

Ralney, E. L. Atlanta 

Rambo, Mrs. S. D "Marietta 

Reed, T. W. Athens 

Reeves, D. M. Atlanta 

Reid, iMiss Julia B McRae 

Reid, Prof. W. D Eatonton 

Riley, Lawton 156 Juniper St., Atlanta 

Riley, S. Gayle Gainesville 

Ross, Mrs. Edgar A Stonehenge, Bluemont, Va. 

Rounsaville, Mrs. J. A. R Rome 

Rowe, Hon. H. J Athens 

Rowland, Dr. Dunbar Jackson, Miss. 

Rucker, Capt. J. H Athens 

Rutherford, Miss Mildred Athens 

Sage, Mrs. T. ¥._„„„ Atlanta 

Samuel, P. T. Box 945, Atlanta 

Sanford, Hon. D. S Milledgeville 

Sanford, Prof. S. V Athens 

Sasser, J. A. Atlanta 

Saylor, Mrs. Addie B Adairsville 

Sell, Prof. E. S Athens 

Sellers, Judge A. V Baxley 

Sewell, Prof. H. L Cartersville 

Shelton, Prof. W. A., Interstate Commerce Comm., Washington, D. C. 

Sheppard, Hon. J. E Americus 

Shipp, Robt. L. Moultrie 

Sibley, Mrs. Jennie Hart Union Point 

Sirmans, W. E. Waycross 

Slack, Dr. H. R LaGrange 

Slaton, Hon. John M -Atlanta 

Smythe, Mrs. Leila Rains Augusta 

Snelling, Col. C. M Athena 

Spalding, Jack J Atlanta 

Spencer, Mrs. Samuel__2012 Massachusetts Ave., Washington, D. C. 

Stanley, Hon. H. M Atlanta 

Stark, Judge 'W. W Commerce 

Steed, Hon. W. E Butler 

Stephens, Judge Alex W Atlanta 

Stephenson, Mell M 505 Trust Co. of Ga. Bldg., Atlanta 

Stephenson, Mell R Atlanta 

Stevens, W. W. Mayfield 

Stewart. Prof. J. S Athens 

Stfahan, Prof. C. M Athens 

Strickland, Judge J. J Athens 

Strickland, Mrs. R. F Griffin 

Sutton, C. E. Washington 

Talley, J. N. Macon 



Georgia Historical Association 39 

Tate, L. E. Tate 

Terrell, Hon. J. Render Greenville 

Therrell, D. M. Atlanta 

Thomas, Mrs. E. A. (Ruby Felder Ray) 84 W. 14tli St., Atlanta 

Thomas, Mrs. Walter Blakely 

Thomas, Judge W. E Valdosta 

Thomasson, Prof. J. F Bainbridge 

Thompson, Miss C. Mildred Vassar College, Poughkeepsie. X. Y. 

Thorn, Chas. C. Atlanta 

Thornton, Mrs. A. E., Sr 611 Peachtree St., x\tlanta 

Thornton, T. J. LaGrange 

Torrence, Clayton Valentine Museum, Richmond, Va. 

Towery, James Gaston 145 McDonough St., Decatur 

Trammell, Hon. Paul B Dalton 

Turner, Edgar 305 Austell Building, Atlanta 

Turner, Hon. S. M Quiiman 

Turner, W. R. :\Iillen 

Twitty, F. E. Brunswick 

University of Georgia Library Athens 

Upson, Stephen C Athens 

Varnedoe, Major J. O -Valdosta 

Vereen, W. C. Moultrie 

Vinson, Hon. Carl Milledgeville 

Vocelle, J. T. St. Marys 

Wade, Judge Peyton L Atlanta 

Walker, Chas. M. ^louroe 

Walker, Mrs. J. L Waycross 

Walker, Hon. J. Randall Valdosta 

Walker, Mrs. Robert Lee Cuthbert 

Wardlaw, 'Mrs. J. F Lafayette 

Watkins, Hon. Edgar 4th Nat. Bk. Bldg.. Atlanta 

West, Judge John T Thomson 

Whipple, Judge U. V Cordele 

White, Mrs. Julia A Athens 

White, Mrs. J. W Louisville 

White, :\Iis3 Willie S Dalton 

Whitner, Chas. F. Atlanta 

Whitner, Thos. L. Atlanta 

Wiley, Judge C. M Macon 

Wilkins, Mrs. A. L Eastman 

Wilkins, Grant Atlanta 

Williams. Rev. M. S Thomasion 

Wilson, Mrs. A. McD 4.36 Peachtree St.. Atlanta 

Wilson. Mrs. Walter S 223 E. Jones St.. Savannah 

V/impey, W. E Clarkston 

Wood, Mrs. James S Savannah 

Woodall, W. C. Columbus 

Woodruff, Dr. Caldwell Hyattsville. Md. 



60 Third AN^aTAL Session 

Woodward, A. T Valdosta 

Woofter, Dr. T. J Athens 

Wright, Judge Moses Rome 

Wright. W. C. Newnan 

Wynn, Mrs. James O J 81 Peachtree Circle, Atlanta 

Yancey, Hon. Hamilton Rome 

Yeomans, Hon. M. J Dawson 

Yow, S. B. Lavonia 



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